The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Myoc  -  myocilin

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AI957332, GLC1A, Myocilin, TIGR, Tigr, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Myoc

  • We developed a genetic mouse model of open-angle glaucoma by expression of mutated mouse myocilin (Myoc) in transgenic (Tg) mice [1].
  • Although no structural changes were observed in lenses of animals expressing normal myocilin, lenses with Tyr437His expression developed nuclear cataracts, completely lost transparency, and eventually ruptured [2].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The decreased level of Myoc/Tigr mRNA in the retina after induction of elevated intraocular pressure compared with that in the control retina cannot be explained by ganglion cell death alone [3].
  • Altered expression of myocilin in the brain of a mouse model for phenylketonuria (PKU) [4].

High impact information on Myoc

  • To directly test if increased levels of MYOC can cause IOP elevation and glaucoma, we generated bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice that overexpress Myoc at a level similar to that induced by corticosteroid use [5].
  • Ocular expression and its involvement in POAG suggest that TIGR/MYOC may have a role(s) in regulating intraocular pressure (IOP) [6].
  • The lack of a discernable phenotype in both Myoc-heterozygous and Myoc-null mice suggests that haploinsufficiency is not a critical mechanism for POAG in individuals with mutations in MYOC [6].
  • We observed a clear difference in the behavior of the two types of TIGR/myocilin; all confirmed mutant proteins tested were substantially Triton insoluble, while normal protein and controls were completely soluble [7].
  • Comparison of the resulting gene index with TIGR, UniGene, DoTS, and ESTGenes databases revealed that it had a greater number of transcripts, a greater average number of exons and introns with proper splicing sites per gene, and longer ORFs [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Myoc


Biological context of Myoc


Anatomical context of Myoc


Associations of Myoc with chemical compounds

  • Dexamethasone upregulates myocilin expression in RGC-5 cells and HT22 hippocampal neurons [13].
  • Basal levels of thymidine incorporation but not glycogen synthesis were consistently higher in TIR than in TIGR expressing cells [14].
  • Myocilin is a secreted 55-57kDa glycoprotein that forms dimers and multimers [15].
  • In TM cells, the expression of myocilin is induced upon treatment with dexamethasone at a time course similar to that observed in steroid-induced glaucoma [15].
  • Canine myocilin is associated with lipid modified by palmitic acid [16].

Other interactions of Myoc


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Myoc

  • As a step in this development, we have investigated the expression pattern of Myoc transcripts in embryonic and adult mouse tissue using Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses [12].
  • Since TIGR is secreted, we assessed a possible role in inhibition of neuronal regeneration with an in vitro bioassay and found that this protein is a potent inhibitor of neurite outgrowth [18].
  • Results of immunoprecipitation show that myocilin is a gamma-synuclein-interacting protein [13].
  • Recombinant myocilin increases outflow resistance in perfused anterior segment organ cultures, while overexpression of myocilin after viral gene transfer appears to reduce outflow resistance [15].
  • Amplification by PCR of this PPI1 variable region from a capsular serotype 17 strain and comparison of the sequence to TIGR serotype 4 strain sequence showed that Sp1051 is contained within an 11.3-kb segment of DNA flanked by 7-bp direct repeats within the serotype 4 strain which is not present in the serotype 17 strain [19].


  1. Expression of mutated mouse myocilin induces open-angle glaucoma in transgenic mice. Senatorov, V., Malyukova, I., Fariss, R., Wawrousek, E.F., Swaminathan, S., Sharan, S.K., Tomarev, S. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Overexpression and properties of wild-type and Tyr437His mutated myocilin in the eyes of transgenic mice. Zillig, M., Wurm, A., Grehn, F.J., Russell, P., Tamm, E.R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Changes in mRNA levels of the Myoc/Tigr gene in the rat eye after experimental elevation of intraocular pressure or optic nerve transection. Ahmed, F., Torrado, M., Johnson, E., Morrison, J., Tomarev, S.I. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Altered expression of myocilin in the brain of a mouse model for phenylketonuria (PKU). Surendran, S., Matalon, D., Tyring, S.K., Rady, P.L., Velagaleti, G.V., Matalon, R. Neurosci. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Genetically increasing Myoc expression supports a necessary pathologic role of abnormal proteins in glaucoma. Gould, D.B., Miceli-Libby, L., Savinova, O.V., Torrado, M., Tomarev, S.I., Smith, R.S., John, S.W. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Targeted Disruption of the Myocilin Gene (Myoc) Suggests that Human Glaucoma-Causing Mutations Are Gain of Function. Kim, B.S., Savinova, O.V., Reedy, M.V., Martin, J., Lun, Y., Gan, L., Smith, R.S., Tomarev, S.I., John, S.W., Johnson, R.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. A cellular assay distinguishes normal and mutant TIGR/myocilin protein. Zhou, Z., Vollrath, D. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Genome-wide assembly and analysis of alternative transcripts in mouse. Sharov, A.A., Dudekula, D.B., Ko, M.S. Genome Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Mutated mouse and human myocilins have similar properties and do not block general secretory pathway. Malyukova, I., Lee, H.S., Fariss, R.N., Tomarev, S.I. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Mouse myocilin (Myoc) gene expression in ocular tissues. Takahashi, H., Noda, S., Imamura, Y., Nagasawa, A., Kubota, R., Mashima, Y., Kudoh, J., Oguchi, Y., Shimizu, N. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of the mouse Myoc/Tigr gene. Tomarev, S.I., Tamm, E.R., Chang, B. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression pattern and in situ localization of the mouse homologue of the human MYOC (GLC1A) gene in adult brain. Swiderski, R.E., Ying, L., Cassell, M.D., Alward, W.L., Stone, E.M., Sheffield, V.C. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Interaction of myocilin with gamma-synuclein affects its secretion and aggregation. Surgucheva, I., Park, B.C., Yue, B.Y., Tomarev, S., Surguchov, A. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential signaling to glycogen synthesis by the intracellular domain of the insulin versus the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor. Evidence from studies of TrkC-chimeras. Kalloo-Hosein, H.E., Whitehead, J.P., Soos, M., Tavaré, J.M., Siddle, K., O'Rahilly, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Myocilin and glaucoma: facts and ideas. Tamm, E.R. Progress in retinal and eye research. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Canine myocilin is associated with lipid modified by palmitic acid. Ricard, C.S., Mukherjee, A., Silver, F.L., Wagenknecht, P.L. Mol. Vis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Development of characterization of a immortal and differentiated murine trabecular meshwork cell line. Tamm, E.R., Russell, P., Piatigorsky, J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. TIGR is upregulated in the chronic glial scar in response to central nervous system injury and inhibits neurite outgrowth. Jurynec, M.J., Riley, C.P., Gupta, D.K., Nguyen, T.D., McKeon, R.J., Buck, C.R. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. A locus contained within a variable region of pneumococcal pathogenicity island 1 contributes to virulence in mice. Brown, J.S., Gilliland, S.M., Spratt, B.G., Holden, D.W. Infect. Immun. (2004) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities