The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Vipr2  -  vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: PACAP type III receptor, PACAP-R-3, PACAP-R3, Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type III receptor, VIP receptor subtype 2, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Vipr2


High impact information on Vipr2


Biological context of Vipr2

  • Here, we report the characterisation of the gene that encodes the mouse VPAC(2) receptor (Vipr2), localisation of the transcriptional start site and functional analysis of the promoter region [7].
  • The Vipr2 gene contains 12 introns within its protein-coding region and spans 68.6 kb [7].
  • The resting membrane potential in Vipr2 ( -/- ) neurones was significantly hyperpolarised as compared to WT cells (-60+/-7 vs -72+/-6 mV, p<0.01) [8].
  • Activation of the VPAC2 signaling pathway induces per1 gene expression in the SCN and phase-shifts the circadian clock [9].
  • Additionally, male and female VPAC2R-deficient mice presented an increased basal metabolic rate (23% and 10%, respectively) compared with their wild-type siblings [10].

Anatomical context of Vipr2


Associations of Vipr2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Vipr2

  • Remarkably, exogenous GRP promoted SCN cellular rhythms in Vipr2(-/-) mouse slices, whereas blockade of BB2 receptors suppressed neuronal oscillations [15].
  • Moreover, VIP-evoked responses from control SCN neurons were attenuated by the selective VPAC2 receptor antagonist PG 99-465 [13].
  • However, granuloma cells cultured with anti-IL-4 mAb strongly expressed VPAC2 mRNA [2].
  • Modeling the VPAC2-activated cAMP/PKA signaling pathway: from receptor to circadian clock gene induction [9].

Other interactions of Vipr2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Vipr2


  1. Allergic diathesis in transgenic mice with constitutive T cell expression of inducible vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor. Voice, J.K., Dorsam, G., Lee, H., Kong, Y., Goetzl, E.J. FASEB J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. IL-4 regulates VIP receptor subtype 2 mRNA (VPAC2) expression in T cells in murine schistosomiasis. Metwali, A., Blum, A.M., Li, J., Elliott, D.E., Weinstock, J.V. FASEB J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. VIP attenuation of the severity of experimental pancreatitis is due to VPAC1 receptor-mediated inhibition of cytokine production. Kojima, M., Ito, T., Oono, T., Hisano, T., Igarashi, H., Arita, Y., Kawabe, K., Coy, D.H., Jensen, R.T., Nawata, H. Pancreas (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The VPAC(2) receptor is essential for circadian function in the mouse suprachiasmatic nuclei. Harmar, A.J., Marston, H.M., Shen, S., Spratt, C., West, K.M., Sheward, W.J., Morrison, C.F., Dorin, J.R., Piggins, H.D., Reubi, J.C., Kelly, J.S., Maywood, E.S., Hastings, M.H. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide mediates circadian rhythmicity and synchrony in mammalian clock neurons. Aton, S.J., Colwell, C.S., Harmar, A.J., Waschek, J., Herzog, E.D. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Overexpression of the human VPAC2 receptor in the suprachiasmatic nucleus alters the circadian phenotype of mice. Shen, S., Spratt, C., Sheward, W.J., Kallo, I., West, K., Morrison, C.F., Coen, C.W., Marston, H.M., Harmar, A.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterisation of the Mouse Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Receptor Type 2 Gene, Vipr2, and Identification of a Polymorphic LINE-1-like Sequence That Confers Altered Promoter Activity. Steel, G., Lutz, E.M. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. VIP receptors control excitability of suprachiasmatic nuclei neurones. Pakhotin, P., Harmar, A.J., Verkhratsky, A., Piggins, H. Pflugers Arch. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Modeling the VPAC2-activated cAMP/PKA signaling pathway: from receptor to circadian clock gene induction. Hao, H., Zak, D.E., Sauter, T., Schwaber, J., Ogunnaike, B.A. Biophys. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide receptor 2 deficiency in mice results in growth retardation and increased basal metabolic rate. Asnicar, M.A., Köster, A., Heiman, M.L., Tinsley, F., Smith, D.P., Galbreath, E., Fox, N., Ma, Y.L., Blum, W.F., Hsiung, H.M. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Developmental and reproductive performance in circadian mutant mice. Dolatshad, H., Campbell, E.A., O'Hara, L., Maywood, E.S., Hastings, M.H., Johnson, M.H. Hum. Reprod. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Differential signaling of T cell generation of IL-4 by wild-type and short-deletion variant of type 2 G protein-coupled receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VPAC2). Huang, M.C., Miller, A.L., Wang, W., Kong, Y., Paul, S., Goetzl, E.J. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. The mouse VPAC2 receptor confers suprachiasmatic nuclei cellular rhythmicity and responsiveness to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in vitro. Cutler, D.J., Haraura, M., Reed, H.E., Shen, S., Sheward, W.J., Morrison, C.F., Marston, H.M., Harmar, A.J., Piggins, H.D. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. A novel recombinant, VPAC2-selective agonist enhancing insulin release and glucose disposal. Yu, R.J., Tam, N.L., Gao, Y., Zeng, Z.H., Zhou, T.H., Hong, A. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Gastrin-releasing peptide promotes suprachiasmatic nuclei cellular rhythmicity in the absence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-VPAC2 receptor signaling. Brown, T.M., Hughes, A.T., Piggins, H.D. J. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. VIP and PACAP induce selective neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Cazillis, M., Gonzalez, B.J., Billardon, C., Lombet, A., Fraichard, A., Samarut, J., Gressens, P., Vaudry, H., Rostène, W. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Functional splice variants of the type II G protein-coupled receptor (VPAC2) for vasoactive intestinal peptide in mouse and human lymphocytes. Miller, A.L., Verma, D., Grinninger, C., Huang, M.C., Goetzl, E.J. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Transgenic approach reveals expression of the VPAC2 receptor in phenotypically defined neurons in the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus and in its efferent target sites. Kalló, I., Kalamatianos, T., Wiltshire, N., Shen, S., Sheward, W.J., Harmar, A.J., Coen, C.W. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Activation of the vasoactive intestinal peptide 2 receptor modulates normal and atrophying skeletal muscle mass and force. Hinkle, R.T., Donnelly, E., Cody, D.B., Sheldon, R.J., Isfort, R.J. J. Appl. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Mechanisms of VIP-induced neuroprotection against neonatal excitotoxicity. Rangon, C.M., Dicou, E., Goursaud, S., Mounien, L., Jégou, S., Janet, T., Muller, J.M., Lelièvre, V., Gressens, P. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. PACAP and VIP promote initiation of electrophysiological activity in differentiating embryonic stem cells. Chafai, M., Louiset, E., Basille, M., Cazillis, M., Vaudry, D., Rostène, W., Gressens, P., Vaudry, H., Gonzalez, B.J. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities