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Gene Review

Stx2  -  syntaxin 2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Epim, Epimorphin, Syntaxin-2
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Disease relevance of Epim


High impact information on Epim


Biological context of Epim


Anatomical context of Epim


Associations of Epim with chemical compounds

  • A peptide derived from the N-terminus of syntaxin 2 or the C-terminus of SNAP-23 significantly inhibited Ca(2+)- and GTPgammaS-stimulated surfactant secretion from permeabilized type II cells in a dose-dependent manner [12].
  • Syntaxin 2, SNAP-23, and annexin A2 co-localized with the CD44 clusters, which were cholesterol dependent [13].
  • In wound assays, the number of migrated cells in the wound area decreased (72.5%) by treatment with 30 muM hydrogen peroxide, but epimorphin increased the number of migrated cells 3.18-fold (P < 0.0001) [6].
  • In addition, epimorphin mRNA studied by Northern blot was also the highest in one ileal clone, in which it was selectively upregulated by all-trans retinoic acid (RA) treatment [10].

Other interactions of Epim


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Epim


  1. Urinary concentrating defect in rats given Shiga toxin: elevation in urinary AQP2 level associated with polyuria. Sugatani, J., Komiyama, N., Mochizuki, T., Hoshino, M., Miyamoto, D., Igarashi, T., Hoshi, S., Miwa, M. Life Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Epimorphin expression in intestinal myofibroblasts induces epithelial morphogenesis. Fritsch, C., Swietlicki, E.A., Lefebvre, O., Kedinger, M., Iordanov, H., Levin, M.S., Rubin, D.C. J. Clin. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Intracellular accumulation of pIgA-R and regulators of transcytotic trafficking in cholestatic rat hepatocytes. Larkin, J.M., Coleman, H., Espinosa, A., Levenson, A., Park, M.S., Woo, B., Zervoudakis, A., Tinh, V. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Syntaxin 2 and endobrevin are required for the terminal step of cytokinesis in mammalian cells. Low, S.H., Li, X., Miura, M., Kudo, N., Quiñones, B., Weimbs, T. Dev. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) in RBL-2H3 mast cells: functional role of syntaxin 4 in exocytosis and identification of a vesicle-associated membrane protein 8-containing secretory compartment. Paumet, F., Le Mao, J., Martin, S., Galli, T., David, B., Blank, U., Roa, M. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Morphogenic protein epimorphin protects intestinal epithelial cells from oxidative stress by the activation of EGF receptor and MEK/ERK, PI3 kinase/Akt signals. Iizuka, M., Sasaki, K., Hirai, Y., Shindo, K., Konno, S., Itou, H., Ohshima, S., Horie, Y., Watanabe, S. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. A novel hepatic stellate (Ito) cell-derived protein, epimorphin, plays a key role in the late stages of liver regeneration. Watanabe, S., Hirose, M., Wang, X.E., Ikejima, K., Oide, H., Kitamura, T., Takei, Y., Miyazaki, A., Sato, N. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Retinal pigment epithelial cells exhibit unique expression and localization of plasma membrane syntaxins which may contribute to their trafficking phenotype. Low, S.H., Marmorstein, L.Y., Miura, M., Li, X., Kudo, N., Marmorstein, A.D., Weimbs, T. J. Cell. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Syntaxin 2 splice variants exhibit differential expression patterns, biochemical properties and subcellular localizations. Quiñones, B., Riento, K., Olkkonen, V.M., Hardy, S., Bennett, M.K. J. Cell. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Subepithelial fibroblast cell lines from different levels of gut axis display regional characteristics. Plateroti, M., Rubin, D.C., Duluc, I., Singh, R., Foltzer-Jourdainne, C., Freund, J.N., Kedinger, M. Am. J. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of syntaxins in rat kidney. Mandon, B., Nielsen, S., Kishore, B.K., Knepper, M.A. Am. J. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Syntaxin 2 and SNAP-23 are required for regulated surfactant secretion. Abonyo, B.O., Gou, D., Wang, P., Narasaraju, T., Wang, Z., Liu, L. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of cholesterol depletion on exocytosis of alveolar type II cells. Chintagari, N.R., Jin, N., Wang, P., Narasaraju, T.A., Chen, J., Liu, L. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. cDNA array identification of genes regulated in rat renal medulla in response to vasopressin infusion. Brooks, H.L., Ageloff, S., Kwon, T.H., Brandt, W., Terris, J.M., Seth, A., Michea, L., Nielsen, S., Fenton, R., Knepper, M.A. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular components of the exocytotic machinery in the rat pituitary gland. Jacobsson, G., Meister, B. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Epimorphin is involved in differentiation of rat hepatic stem-like cells through cell-cell contact. Miura, K., Nagai, H., Ueno, Y., Goto, T., Mikami, K., Nakane, K., Yoneyama, K., Watanabe, D., Terada, K., Sugiyama, T., Imai, K., Senoo, H., Watanabe, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Rat basophilic leukemia cells express syntaxin-3 and VAMP-7 in granule membranes. Hibi, T., Hirashima, N., Nakanishi, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of rat epimorphin/syntaxin 2 expression suggests a role in crypt-villus morphogenesis. Goyal, A., Singh, R., Swietlicki, E.A., Levin, M.S., Rubin, D.C. Am. J. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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