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Gene Review

Stx2  -  syntaxin 2

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AW538950, Epim, Epimorphin, G1-536-1, Syn-2, ...
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Disease relevance of Stx2


Psychiatry related information on Stx2

  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Stx2 on (i) maternal lethality, (ii) fetuses, (iii) delivery period, and (iv) maternal behavior after delivery [4].

High impact information on Stx2


Chemical compound and disease context of Stx2


Biological context of Stx2

  • Sperm express Syt VI and VIII and Stx2, which are co-localized to the acrosomal compartment where they might mediate exocytosis in response to calcium influx [8].
  • Taken together, our data suggest a critical role for Syt VIII and Stx2 in membrane fusion and acrosome reaction in the sperm [8].
  • By searching the recent protein data base, it was found that the HPC-1 antigen revealed unusual similarity to epimorphin which was mesenchymal factor related to the morphogenesis of primitive epidermal tissues in embryonic stages [9].
  • These results suggest that a certain population of epimorphin molecules is involved in cell/cell interaction through a process of complex formation, transportation to extracellular regions, and direct binding to the cell surface [10].
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis also revealed that epimorphin increased the expression of a trophoblast cell differentiation marker, placental lactogen-1 (PL-1), mRNA (P < 0.01) [11].

Anatomical context of Stx2

  • Synaptotagmin VI and VIII and syntaxin 2 are essential for the mouse sperm acrosome reaction [8].
  • In unstimulated cells, syntaxin 2 was exclusively present on the apical plasma membrane [12].
  • In contrast, after stimulation, syntaxin 2 had moved into the membranes of fused granules, as judged by its location around dye-filled structures of 1-mum diameter that were coated with filamentous actin [12].
  • Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that epimorphin was localized in outgrowing trophoblast cells and ICM [11].
  • Treatment with a function inhibitor, rat anti-mouse epimorphin IgM, reduced the number of embryos progressing to blastocyst outgrowth to the levels similar to those observed with plain culture medium [11].

Associations of Stx2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Stx2


Other interactions of Stx2

  • We conclude that syntaxin 2 enters the membrane of a fused zymogen granule after the opening of the fusion pore, and we suggest that this movement might permit the onset of secondary fusion [12].
  • It has been suggested that the sequential nature of primary and secondary fusion is a consequence of the requirement for plasma membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors, such as syntaxin 2, to enter the membrane of the primary fused granule [12].
  • Deletion analysis showed that the syntaxin-2/3 (or Munc18-1/2)-binding site is a linker domain of Slp4-a (amino acid residues 144-354), a previously uncharacterized region located between the N-terminal Rab27A binding domain and the C2A domain [16].
  • Increased expression of epimorphin in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice [7].
  • However, from Day 7 until Day 28 after bleomycin treatment, increasing levels of epimorphin immunoreactivity were detected in the mesenchymal cells and in the extracellular matrix within intra-alveolar fibrotic lesions [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Stx2


  1. Distribution and isoforms of epimorphin in carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice. Segawa, D., Miura, K., Goto, T., Ohshima, S., Mikami, K., Yoneyama, K., Shibuya, T., Watanabe, D., Kataoka, E., Yoshino, R., Watanabe, S. J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Epimorphin(-/-) mice have increased intestinal growth, decreased susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate colitis, and impaired spermatogenesis. Wang, Y., Wang, L., Iordanov, H., Swietlicki, E.A., Zheng, Q., Jiang, S., Tang, Y., Levin, M.S., Rubin, D.C. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Epimorphin overexpression in the mouse mammary gland promotes alveolar hyperplasia and mammary adenocarcinoma. Bascom, J.L., Fata, J.E., Hirai, Y., Sternlicht, M.D., Bissell, M.J. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of Shiga toxin 2 on lethality, fetuses, delivery, and puerperal behavior in pregnant mice. Yoshimura, K., Fujii, J., Tanimoto, A., Yutsudo, T., Kashimura, M., Yoshida, S. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Development of DNA vaccines against hemolytic-uremic syndrome in a murine model. Capozzo, A.V., Pistone Creydt, V., Dran, G., Fernández, G., Gómez, S., Bentancor, L.V., Rubel, C., Ibarra, C., Isturiz, M., Palermo, M.S. Infect. Immun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Delivering the message: epimorphin and mammary epithelial morphogenesis. Radisky, D.C., Hirai, Y., Bissell, M.J. Trends Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Increased expression of epimorphin in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Terasaki, Y., Fukuda, Y., Ishizaki, M., Yamanaka, N. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Synaptotagmin VI and VIII and syntaxin 2 are essential for the mouse sperm acrosome reaction. Hutt, D.M., Baltz, J.M., Ngsee, J.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Neuron-specific antigen HPC-1 from bovine brain reveals strong homology to epimorphin, an essential factor involved in epithelial morphogenesis: identification of a novel protein family. Inoue, A., Akagawa, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-resistant complex formation of epimorphin monomers and interaction of the 150-kDa complex with the cell surface. Hirai, Y. Eur. J. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of embryo outgrowth by a morphogenic factor, epimorphin, in the mouse. Qin, J., Takahashi, Y., Isuzugawa, K., Imai, M., Yamamoto, S., Hirai, Y., Imakawa, K. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. The plasma membrane Q-SNARE syntaxin 2 enters the zymogen granule membrane during exocytosis in the pancreatic acinar cell. Pickett, J.A., Thorn, P., Edwardson, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Epimorphin mediates mammary luminal morphogenesis through control of C/EBPbeta. Hirai, Y., Radisky, D., Boudreau, R., Simian, M., Stevens, M.E., Oka, Y., Takebe, K., Niwa, S., Bissell, M.J. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Antibodies against domain E3 of laminin-1 and integrin alpha 6 subunit perturb branching epithelial morphogenesis of submandibular gland, but by different modes. Kadoya, Y., Kadoya, K., Durbeej, M., Holmvall, K., Sorokin, L., Ekblom, P. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. CXCL1/KC and CXCL2/MIP-2 Are Critical Effectors and Potential Targets for Therapy of Escherichia coli O157:H7-Associated Renal Inflammation. Roche, J.K., Keepers, T.R., Gross, L.K., Seaner, R.M., Obrig, T.G. Am. J. Pathol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Slp4-a/granuphilin-a interacts with syntaxin-2/3 in a Munc18-2-dependent manner. Fukuda, M., Imai, A., Nashida, T., Shimomura, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Non-classical export of epimorphin and its adhesion to alphav-integrin in regulation of epithelial morphogenesis. Hirai, Y., Nelson, C.M., Yamazaki, K., Takebe, K., Przybylo, J., Madden, B., Radisky, D.C. J. Cell. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. Protein localization and mRNA expression of epimorphin in mouse and human kidneys. Horikoshi, S., Yoshikawa, M., Shibata, T., Takahashi, K., Shirato, I., Tomino, Y. Exp. Nephrol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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