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Gene Review

Pigr  -  polymeric immunoglobulin receptor

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: PIgR, Poly-Ig receptor, Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, RNPIGR2, pIgA-R
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Disease relevance of Pigr

  • Here we show that cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation results in the accumulation of transcytotic carriers, identified by the 120 x 10(3) Mr pIgA-R and pIgA, in the pericanalicular cytoplasm of hepatocytes [1].
  • The IgA/IgM receptor expressed on a murine B cell lymphoma is poly-Ig receptor [2].
  • Caloric deficiency in an experimental system that closely resembles human marasmus results in a decrease in the quantity of the pIgR that is sufficient to account for the low concentration of IgA in the mucous secretions of the intestine [3].
  • Considered together with recent evidence pertaining to weanling protein deficiency, these results permit the conclusion that the pIgR is a focal point of the impact exerted by metabolically diverse forms of protein-energy malnutrition on mucosal humoral immunocompetence [3].
  • We examined the effects of an ischemic model of acute renal failure (ARF) on the expression of pIgR and the secretion of FSC and S-IgA in the urine [4].

Psychiatry related information on Pigr


High impact information on Pigr

  • It was concluded that phosphorylation is the signal that directs the pIgR from the endosome into the transcytotic pathway [6].
  • When exogenous receptor was expressed in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, it was shown that phosphorylation of pIgR at the serine residue at position 664 is required for efficient transcytosis [6].
  • Transcytosis of polymeric immunoglobulin A (pIgA) across epithelial cells is mediated by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) [7].
  • Analysis of p62yes knockout mice revealed a dramatic reduction in the association of tyrosine kinase activity with the pIgR and in transcytosis of pIgA [7].
  • Binding of pIgA to pIgR stimulates transcytosis of the pIgA-pIgR complex via a signal transduction pathway that is dependent on a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) of the SRC family [7].

Biological context of Pigr


Anatomical context of Pigr


Associations of Pigr with chemical compounds

  • The starting preparation is a Golgi light fraction (GLF) isolated by flotation in a discontinuous sucrose density gradient and processed through immunoisolation on magnetic beads coated with an antibody against the last 11 aa. of the pIgA-R tail [14].
  • Finally, the rate of transcytosis of dimeric IgA and its appearance in bile are not affected when disulfide bond formation with polymeric immunoglobulin receptor is inhibited by blocking of free thiol groups on dimeric IgA with iodoacetamide [15].
  • The transcellular transport of polymeric immunoglobulins (pIg) across mucosal epithelia is mediated by a membrane glycoprotein known as the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) [16].
  • No significant changes were observed in the pIgR mRNA levels of animals treated with progesterone alone or with a combination of estradiol and progesterone [17].
  • When ovariectomized rats were treated with estradiol, progesterone, or a combination of the two for 3 days, pIgR mRNA levels were significantly reduced in estradiol-treated animals relative to saline-treated controls [17].

Physical interactions of Pigr


Co-localisations of Pigr


Other interactions of Pigr


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pigr

  • Bile duct ligation (BDL) impairs basolateral-to-apical transcytosis in hepatocytes, causing accumulation of transcytotic carriers for the polymeric IgA receptor (pIgA-R) and redistribution of secretory component (SC) from bile to blood [9].
  • Positive sites for pIgA-R were localized to the pericanalicular cytoplasm of hepatocytes by indirect immunofluorescence on semithin frozen sections in cholestatic hepatocytes [1].
  • In addition, cells from old animals showed markedly diminished secretion of secretory component determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expression of polymeric immunoglobulin receptor determined by incorporation of 35S-labeled amino acid and fluorography [24].
  • By using a rabbit polyclonal antibody against the rat secretory component domain of the pIgR, Western blot analysis demonstrated that the plasma-membrane-bound pIgR levels in hepatocytes from rats aged 19-22 dPP increased 10-fold during this period [25].
  • To determine whether or not this increase in membrane-bound pIgR reflected increased pIgR gene expression, we probed Northern blots of total cellular RNA extracted from neonatal rat liver with pIgR cDNA [GORF-1; Banting, G., Brake, B., Braghetta, P., Luzio, J.P. & Stanley, K. K. (1989) FEBS Lett. 254, 177-183] [25].


  1. Transcytotic vesicular carriers for polymeric IgA receptors accumulate in rat hepatocytes after bile duct ligation. Larkin, J.M., Palade, G.E. J. Cell. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. The IgA/IgM receptor expressed on a murine B cell lymphoma is poly-Ig receptor. Phillips-Quagliata, J.M., Patel, S., Han, J.K., Arakelov, S., Rao, T.D., Shulman, M.J., Fazel, S., Corley, R.B., Everett, M., Klein, M.H., Underdown, B.J., Corthésy, B. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Depression in the quantity of intestinal secretory IgA and in the expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor in caloric deficiency of the weanling mouse. Ha, C.L., Woodward, B. Lab. Invest. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor and excretion of secretory IgA in the postischemic kidney. Rice, J.C., Spence, J.S., Megyesi, J., Goldblum, R.M., Safirstein, R.L. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor by water intake and vasopressin in the rat kidney. Rice, J.C., Spence, J.S., Megyesi, J., Safirstein, R.L., Goldblum, R.M. Am. J. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Phosphorylation of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor required for its efficient transcytosis. Casanova, J.E., Breitfeld, P.P., Ross, S.A., Mostov, K.E. Science (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. The SRC family protein tyrosine kinase p62yes controls polymeric IgA transcytosis in vivo. Luton, F., Vergés, M., Vaerman, J.P., Sudol, M., Mostov, K.E. Mol. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. A 43-base-pair complementary DNA sequence homology and triplet repeat motif among putative polymeric immunoglobulin receptor messenger RNAs in regenerating rat liver. Koch, K.S., Fletcher, R.G., Grond, M.P., Leffert, H.L. Hepatology (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Intracellular accumulation of pIgA-R and regulators of transcytotic trafficking in cholestatic rat hepatocytes. Larkin, J.M., Coleman, H., Espinosa, A., Levenson, A., Park, M.S., Woo, B., Zervoudakis, A., Tinh, V. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Discordant expression and variable numbers of neighboring GGA- and GAA-rich triplet repeats in the 3' untranslated regions of two groups of messenger RNAs encoded by the rat polymeric immunoglobulin receptor gene. Koch, K.S., Gleiberman, A.S., Aoki, T., Leffert, H.L., Feren, A., Jones, A.L., Fodor, E.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Attenuation of gene expression by a trinucleotide repeat-rich tract from the terminal exon of the rat hepatic polymeric immunoglobulin receptor gene. Aoki, T., Koch, K.S., Leffert, H.L. J. Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Gene transfer into the airway epithelium of animals by targeting the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor. Ferkol, T., Perales, J.C., Eckman, E., Kaetzel, C.S., Hanson, R.W., Davis, P.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. The polymeric immunoglobulin receptor accumulates in specialized endosomes but not synaptic vesicles within the neurites of transfected neuroendocrine PC12 cells. Bonzelius, F., Herman, G.A., Cardone, M.H., Mostov, K.E., Kelly, R.B. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Membrane and secretory proteins are transported from the Golgi complex to the sinusoidal plasmalemma of hepatocytes by distinct vesicular carriers. Saucan, L., Palade, G.E. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Disulfide bond formation between dimeric immunoglobulin A and the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor during hepatic transcytosis. Chintalacharuvu, K.R., Tavill, A.S., Louis, L.N., Vaerman, J.P., Lamm, M.E., Kaetzel, C.S. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Processing of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor. Solari, R., Schaerer, E., Tallichet, C., Racine, L., Kraehenbuhl, J.P. Biochem. Soc. Symp. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Polymeric immunoglobulin A receptor in the rodent female reproductive tract: influence of estradiol in the vagina and differential expression of messenger ribonucleic acid during estrous cycle. Kaushic, C., Frauendorf, E., Wira, C.R. Biol. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Cellubrevin is present in the basolateral endocytic compartment of hepatocytes and follows the transcytotic pathway after IgA internalization. Calvo, M., Pol, A., Lu, A., Ortega, D., Pons, M., Blasi, J., Enrich, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Tissue distribution and subcellular localization of the ClC-5 chloride channel in rat intestinal cells. Vandewalle, A., Cluzeaud, F., Peng, K.C., Bens, M., Lüchow, A., Günther, W., Jentsch, T.J. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. 5'nucleotidase is sorted to the apical domain of hepatocytes via an indirect route. Schell, M.J., Maurice, M., Stieger, B., Hubbard, A.L. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Dynamics of four rat liver plasma membrane proteins and polymeric IgA receptor. Rates of synthesis and selective loss into the bile. Scott, L.J., Hubbard, A.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. cDNA microarray analysis reveals new candidate genes possibly linked to side effects under mycophenolate mofetil therapy. Shipkova, M., Spielbauer, B., Voland, A., Gröne, H.J., Armstrong, V.W., Oellerich, M., Wieland, E. Transplantation (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Aging effects on hepatic NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, CYP2B1&2, and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor mRNAs in male Fischer 344 rats. van Bezooijen, R.L., Wang, R.K., Lechner, M.C., Schmucker, D.L. Exp. Gerontol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor by cultured aged rat hepatocytes. Gregoire, C.D., Zhang, L., Daniels, C.K. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Ontogeny of the secretory immune system: maturation of a functional polymeric immunoglobulin receptor regulated by gene expression. Huling, S., Fournier, G.R., Feren, A., Chuntharapai, A., Jones, A.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
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