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Gene Review

Thrsp  -  thyroid hormone responsive

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Lpgp, S14, SPOT14, Spot 14 protein, Thyroid hormone-inducible hepatic protein
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Disease relevance of Thrsp


Psychiatry related information on Thrsp

  • Septal-diagonal band grafts improved open field habituation (within trial decline of ambulatory activity) and radial maze learning; the former was observed only in S16 rats, whereas the latter was observed only in S14 rats [6].

High impact information on Thrsp

  • The highest density of S-14 section labeling occurred over A cells, which under conditions of maximum labeling (37 degrees C for 60 min) contained five times as many ARG as did B cells [7].
  • Monolayer cultures of rat islet cells were incubated with [125I-Tyr11]S-14 (S-14 section) or [125I-Leu8, D-Trp22, Tyr25]S-28 (S-28 section) in the presence or absence of excess unlabeled peptides [7].
  • Opposing effects of glucagon and triiodothyronine on the hepatic levels of messenger ribonucleic acid S14 and the dependence of such effects on circadian factors [8].
  • Moreover, the data suggest the hypothesis that T3 may act on S14 gene expression by antagonizing factors that inhibit its transcription [8].
  • In an attempt to identify such a molecule, I characterized the molecular forms of S-28(1-12)-like immunoreactivity (S-28(1-12) LI) in the rat pancreas and compared the relative amounts of these forms with those of S-14-like immunoreactivity (S-14 LI) [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Thrsp


Biological context of Thrsp


Anatomical context of Thrsp

  • The thyroid hormone responsive protein (THRP) is a novel gene product that remains responsive to thyroid hormone (TH) in the cerebral cortex of adult rats [16].
  • The experiments showed that proteins S2, S3, S4, S6, S7, S13, and S14 in the small subunit of rat liver ribosomes are located at the ribosomal interface in close proximity to 28S rRNA [17].
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit S14 gene transcription in rat liver and cultured hepatocytes [18].
  • To investigate the cellular site at which T3 acts to induce this hepatic mRNA, we made parallel measurements of the relative levels of spot 14 mRNA and nuclear precursor RNA and of the rate of gene transcription after treatments designed to alter the thyroid status of rats [19].
  • All HpaII/MspI sites and most HhaI sites either within or flanking the S14 gene were undermethylated in liver and lactating mammary gland [20].

Associations of Thrsp with chemical compounds

  • Northern blot analysis revealed that THRP, highly expressed in the brain in a tissue-specific manner, was induced by PCM and that cysteine supplementation abolished the THRP induction [1].
  • We have isolated and characterized a rat gene coding for spot 14 mRNA: a hepatic product induced rapidly by thyroid hormone [21].
  • Both T3 and sucrose were required to restore S14 run-on activity and mRNAS14 to euthyroid-fed levels within 4 h [14].
  • To further document THRP-induced cytotoxicity, the cells were either transfected with pSVL (empty vector)+pSV2neo (neomycin resistance vector for cell labeling), pSVL-THRP+pSV2neo, or pSVL-THRP+pc-Abl (cAbl tyrosine kinase expressing vector)+pSV2neo [16].
  • To study the effects of THRP on neuronal cell survival, primary neurons cultured from rats at embryonic day 19 were treated with either 10(-7) mol L(-1) 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T(3)), or 10(-7) mol L(-1) L: -thyroxine (T(4)) [16].

Other interactions of Thrsp


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Thrsp


  1. Identification of genes enhanced by protein-calorie malnutrition by differential display polymerase chain reaction (expression of fibrinogen B beta chain, B cell translocation gene 1 and thyroid hormone responsive protein genes). Lee, A.K., Kang, K.W., Kim, Y.G., Cho, M.K., Lee, M.G., Shim, C.K., Chung, S.J., Kim, S.G. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Human spot 14 glucose and thyroid hormone response: characterization and thyroid hormone response element identification. Campbell, M.C., Anderson, G.W., Mariash, C.N. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Stimulation of S14 mRNA and lipogenesis in brown fat by hypothyroidism, cold exposure, and cafeteria feeding: evidence supporting a general role for S14 in lipogenesis and lipogenesis in the maintenance of thermogenesis. Freake, H.C., Oppenheimer, J.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. In vivo genomic footprinting of thyroid hormone-responsive genes in pituitary tumor cell lines. Kim, S.W., Ahn, I.M., Larsen, P.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. The effect of antibodies against Escherichia coli small ribosomal subunit proteins on protein synthesis by rat liver ribosomes. Tanaka, T., Wool, I.G., Stöffler, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Graft-induced behavioral recovery from subcallosal septohippocampal damage in rats depends on maturity stage of donor tissue. Cassel, J.C., Kelche, C., Peterson, G.M., Ballough, G.P., Goepp, I., Will, B. Neuroscience (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Selective binding of somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28 to islet cells revealed by quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography. Amherdt, M., Patel, Y.C., Orci, L. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Opposing effects of glucagon and triiodothyronine on the hepatic levels of messenger ribonucleic acid S14 and the dependence of such effects on circadian factors. Kinlaw, W.B., Schwartz, H.L., Towle, H.C., Oppenheimer, J.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. A high molecular weight form of somatostatin-28 (1-12)-like immunoreactive substance without somatostatin-14 immunoreactivity in the rat pancreas. Evidence that somatostatin-14 synthesis can occur independently of somatostatin-28. Patel, Y.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Expression of a thyroid hormone-responsive recombinant gene introduced into adult mice livers by replication-defective adenovirus can be regulated by endogenous thyroid hormone receptor. Hayashi, Y., DePaoli, A.M., Burant, C.F., Refetoff, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Definition of the carbohydrate response element of the rat S14 gene. Context of the CACGTG motif determines the specificity of carbohydrate regulation. Shih, H., Towle, H.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Regulation of alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chain messenger RNAs in the rat myocardium by amiodarone and by thyroid status. Franklyn, J.A., Green, N.K., Gammage, M.D., Alhquist, J.A., Sheppard, M.C. Clin. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Effect of hypothyroidism and thyroid hormone treatment of the rat on hepatic Spot 14 and thyroxine binding prealbumin mRNAs. Franklyn, J.A., King, S., Ahlquist, J.A., Sheppard, M.C. Acta Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Thyroid hormone and dietary carbohydrate interact to regulate rat liver S14 gene transcription and chromatin structure. Jump, D.B., Bell, A., Santiago, V. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of functional cis-acting elements within the rat liver S14 promoter. MacDougald, O.A., Jump, D.B. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Thyroid hormone responsive protein (THRP) mediates thyroid hormone-induced cytotoxicity in primary neuronal cultures. Haas, M.J., Fishman, M., Mreyoud, A., Mooradian, A.D. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification by RNA-protein cross-linking of ribosomal proteins located at the interface between the small and the large subunits of mammalian ribosomes. Nygård, O., Nika, H. EMBO J. (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibit S14 gene transcription in rat liver and cultured hepatocytes. Jump, D.B., Clarke, S.D., MacDougald, O., Thelen, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Stabilization of a specific nuclear mRNA precursor by thyroid hormone. Narayan, P., Towle, H.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Chromatin structure and methylation state of a thyroid hormone-responsive gene in rat liver. Jump, D.B., Wong, N.C., Oppenheimer, J.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of a thyroid hormone-responsive gene from rat. Liaw, C.W., Towle, H.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Kinetics of induction by thyroid hormone of the two hepatic mRNAs coding for cytosolic malic enzyme in the hypothyroid and euthyroid states. Evidence against an obligatory role of S14 protein in malic enzyme gene expression. Strait, K.A., Kinlaw, W.B., Mariash, C.N., Oppenheimer, J.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Arachidonic acid and PGE2 regulation of hepatic lipogenic gene expression. Mater, M.K., Thelen, A.P., Jump, D.B. J. Lipid Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Characterization of the promoter region and flanking sequences of the neuron-specific gene RC3 (neurogranin). Iñiguez, M.A., Morte, B., Rodriguez-Peña, A., Muñoz, A., Gerendasy, D., Sutcliffe, J.G., Bernal, J. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c is a major mediator of insulin action on the hepatic expression of glucokinase and lipogenesis-related genes. Foretz, M., Guichard, C., Ferré, P., Foufelle, F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Distinct behavior of cardiac myosin heavy chain gene constructs in vivo. Discordance with in vitro results. Buttrick, P.M., Kaplan, M.L., Kitsis, R.N., Leinwand, L.A. Circ. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Isolation of a thyroid hormone-responsive gene by immunoprecipitation of thyroid hormone receptor-DNA complexes. Bigler, J., Eisenman, R.N. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Induction of a rapidly responsive hepatic gene product by thyroid hormone requires ongoing protein synthesis. Jacoby, D.B., Engle, J.A., Towle, H.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
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