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Gene Review

IGKV2-24  -  immunoglobulin kappa variable 2-24

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: A23, IGKV224
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Disease relevance of IGKV2-24

  • The toxicity to neutrophils and lymphocytes was demonstrated by decreased lactate production (LP) after incubation with A23 of Ficoll-Hypaque fractions greatly enriched in each respective cell type [1].
  • All A23 transgenic animals spontaneously developed severe autoimmune gastritis, and evidence of disease was detected as early as day 10 of life [2].
  • PATIENT: A 23-year-old woman with monthly recurrent meningitis episodes, mostly in the perimenstrual period, since August 1999 [3].
  • CASE: A 23-year-old woman, para 2-0-0-2, developed hepatitis A at 20 weeks' gestation [4].
  • The 323/A23 monoclonal antibody (MAb) is expressed with increasing breast atypia, whilst Ca1 has been suggested as a marker of cancer risk in benign breast disease [5].

Psychiatry related information on IGKV2-24

  • A22, A23, and A39 provide major afferents to other frontal systems and have previously been implicated in very early clinical Alzheimer's disease [6].
  • The transition to clinical dementia was associated with the presence of tauopathy in A9/10, A22, A23, and A39 [6].

High impact information on IGKV2-24

  • In this report we identify HCV-specific CTL responses restricted by the HLA class I molecules A2, A3, A11, A23, B7, B8, and B53 [7].
  • However, ionophore A23 187 released similar levels of histamine from the 2 MC types [8].
  • We now show that molecular modeling of tyrphostin A23 into the tyrosine-binding pocket in mu2 provides a structural explanation for A23 being able to inhibit the interaction between YXXPhi motifs and mu2 [9].
  • These data are consistent with A23 inhibition of the YXXPhi motif/mu2 interaction in intact cells and with the possibility that different tyrphostins may be used to inhibit specific membrane trafficking events in eukaryotic cells [9].
  • Pretreatment with VO(4)(-3) antagonized genistein-induced augmentation and A23- or A25-induced suppression of I(Cl.vol) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of IGKV2-24


Biological context of IGKV2-24

  • Immunogenetic investigation demonstrated that HLA-A11 and A23 were significantly overrepresented in the whole group of cryptorchids in comparison with the controls (P = 0.004 and P = 0.0123, respectively) [11].
  • Due to the complete penetrance of spontaneous disease, identity of the auto-antigen, susceptibility to immunoregulation, and close relation to autoimmune gastritis in man, A23 transgenic mice represent a unique CD4(+) T cell-mediated disease model for understanding the multiple factors regulating organ-specific autoimmunity [2].
  • All individuals utilized either the Vkappa A23 L chain, the Vkappa L6 L chain, or both chains in forming the 23F-specific combining site [12].
  • We have constructed a set of hybrid cell lines by irradiation of GM 64063 (human chromosome 9q only on hamster background) and fusion to hamster A23 Tk-, 109 independent lines were tested by PCR with 24 markers from chromosome 9q [13].
  • A radiation hybrid panel has been constructed for chromosome 9 using the somatic cell hybrid GM10611 as the donor cell line fused to the hamster cell line A23 [14].

Anatomical context of IGKV2-24

  • In 18 patients with OSA the release of superoxide from polymorphonuclear neutrophils was determined after stimulation with the bacterial tripeptide formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLP) and the calcium ionophore A23 [15].
  • Red cells present in dextran-sedimented leukocytes were increasingly susceptible to lysis during washing subsequent to exposure to increasing concentrations of A23 [1].
  • The T cell receptor alpha and beta genes from this clone were used to generate A23 transgenic mice [2].
  • The A1-A23 sequence of NSc DS.PG (major fraction, C): NH2Asp-Glu-Ala-O-Gly-Ile-Gly-Pro-Glu-Val-Pro-Asp-Asp-Arg-Asp-Phe-G lu-Pro- Ser-Leu-Gly-Pro-Val was the same as reported for a DS.PG isolated from human fetal membrane (HFM) tissue (Brennan et al., 1984) [16].

Associations of IGKV2-24 with chemical compounds

  • Thrombin-pretreated platelets will not retract a thrombin-induced fibrin clot unless ADP, sodium arachidonate, the ionophore A23, 187 or collagen are added together with thrombin [17].
  • Collagen, arachidonate, thrombin, immune serum globulin, the ionophore A23, 187 and phytohaemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris caused aggregation and release of granule contents [18].
  • Calcineurin was inhibited by tyrphostins A8 (also designated AG10), A23 (AG18), and A48 (AG112) with p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate [19].
  • Unlike Ca2+, Mn2+ could substitute for Mg2+, before and after addition of A23, showing its ability to regulate phosphorylation and succinate dehydrogenase activities, with almost the same efficiency as Mg2+ [20].
  • Ionophores selective for Na+ (monensin, dianemycin), for K+ (valinomycin, nigericin), for Ca2+ (A23 187, X-537A), the calcium deregulatory substances amiprophosmethyl, fluphenazine, caffeine and the chelator EGTA have been applied to intact slime-producing root tips [21].

Other interactions of IGKV2-24

  • CONCLUSIONS: The study strongly suggests the association among DR2, A23 and B21 allele and the evolution of ON to MS [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IGKV2-24

  • Binding characteristics to 20K-, 22K-hGH and monkey GH (mGH) of these five mAbs, designated A23, B13, C02, D05, and D14, were analyzed by enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) and surface plasmon resonance analysis [23].
  • Fifty pregnancy alloantisera directed towards HLA-A23 and/or A24 antigens were investigated serologically in titration studies against the three sequenced HLA-A9 specificities, A23 (A*2301), A24 (A*2402) and A2403 (A*2403) [24].


  1. Cytotoxicity of ionophore A23187 for basophils and other human blood cells. Pruzansky, J.J., Patterson, R. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. A T cell receptor transgenic model of severe, spontaneous organ-specific autoimmunity. McHugh, R.S., Shevach, E.M., Margulies, D.H., Natarajan, K. Eur. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Complement factor I deficiency associated with recurrent meningitis coinciding with menstruation. González-Rubio, C., Ferreira-Cerdán, A., Ponce, I.M., Arpa, J., Fontán, G., López-Trascasa, M. Arch. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Intrauterine transmission of hepatitis A virus. Leikin, E., Lysikiewicz, A., Garry, D., Tejani, N. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Monoclonal antibodies 323/A3 and Ca1 identify a paracrine function of breast carcinoma on adjacent benign histological components. Courtney, S.P., Williams, S., Mansel, R.E. Br. J. Cancer Suppl. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Pathological determinants of the transition to clinical dementia in Alzheimer's disease. Royall, D.R., Palmer, R., Mulroy, A.R., Polk, M.J., Román, G.C., David, J.P., Delacourte, A. Experimental aging research. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for hepatitis C virus. Identification of multiple epitopes and characterization of patterns of cytokine release. Koziel, M.J., Dudley, D., Afdhal, N., Grakoui, A., Rice, C.M., Choo, Q.L., Houghton, M., Walker, B.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Selective down-regulation of high-affinity IgE receptor (FcepsilonRI) alpha-chain messenger RNA among transcriptome in cord blood-derived versus adult peripheral blood-derived cultured human mast cells. Iida, M., Matsumoto, K., Tomita, H., Nakajima, T., Akasawa, A., Ohtani, N.Y., Yoshida, N.L., Matsui, K., Nakada, A., Sugita, Y., Shimizu, Y., Wakahara, S., Nakao, T., Fujii, Y., Ra, C., Saito, H. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Tyrphostin A23 inhibits internalization of the transferrin receptor by perturbing the interaction between tyrosine motifs and the medium chain subunit of the AP-2 adaptor complex. Banbury, D.N., Oakley, J.D., Sessions, R.B., Banting, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Differential effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on volume-sensitive chloride current in human atrial myocytes: evidence for dual regulation by Src and EGFR kinases. Du, X.L., Gao, Z., Lau, C.P., Chiu, S.W., Tse, H.F., Baumgarten, C.M., Li, G.R. J. Gen. Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunogenetic and hormonal study of cryptorchidism. Martinetti, M., Maghnie, M., Salvaneschi, L., Di Ninno, N., Daielli, C., Palladini, G., Cuccia, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Recurrent variable region gene usage and somatic mutation in the human antibody response to the capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 23F. Zhou, J., Lottenbach, K.R., Barenkamp, S.J., Lucas, A.H., Reason, D.C. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. A high-resolution radiation hybrid map of the region surrounding the Gorlin syndrome gene. Obermayr, F., Walter, M.A., Jones, H.B., Goodfellow, P.N., Frischauf, A.M. Eur. J. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Construction of a radiation hybrid map of chromosome 9p. Bouzyk, M., Bryant, S.P., Schmitt, K., Goodfellow, P.N., Ekong, R., Spurr, N.K. Genomics (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Enhanced release of superoxide from polymorphonuclear neutrophils in obstructive sleep apnea. Impact of continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Schulz, R., Mahmoudi, S., Hattar, K., Sibelius, U., Olschewski, H., Mayer, K., Seeger, W., Grimminger, F. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Isolation and partial characterization of dermatan sulfate proteoglycans from human post-burn scar tissues. Swann, D.A., Garg, H.G., Hendry, C.J., Hermann, H., Siebert, E., Sotman, S., Stafford, W. Coll. Relat. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. In vitro and in vivo functions of thrombin-treated platelets. Reimers, H.J., Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L., Cazenave, J.P., Senyi, A.F., Hirsh, J., Packham, M.A., Mustard, J.F. Thromb. Haemost. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. Properties of washed human platelets. Kinlough-Rathbone, R.L., Mustard, J.F., Packham, M.A., Perry, D.W., Reimers, H.J., Cazenave, J.P. Thromb. Haemost. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Inhibition of calcineurin by the tyrphostin class of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Martin, B.L. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Regulation by magnesium of potato tuber mitochondrial respiratory activities. Vicente, J.A., Madeira, V.M., Vercesi, A.E. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. The ionic sensitivity of secretion-associated organelles in root cap cells of maize. Robinson, D.G. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. Influence of HLA on progression of optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis: results of a four-year follow-up study. Kheradvar, A., Tabassi, A.R., Nikbin, B., Khosravi, F., Naroueynejad, M., Moradi, B., Amirzargar, A.A. Mult. Scler. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Construction of a specific and sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay for 20 kDa human growth hormone. Hashimoto, Y., Ikeda, I., Ikeda, M., Takahashi, Y., Hosaka, M., Uchida, H., Kono, N., Fukui, H., Makino, T., Honjo, M. J. Immunol. Methods (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. HLA-A9 antibodies and epitopes. Fussell, H., Thomas, M., Street, J., Darke, C. Tissue Antigens (1996) [Pubmed]
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