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Gene Review

IGKV3D-20  -  immunoglobulin kappa variable 3D-20

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: A11, A11a, IGKV3D20
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Disease relevance of IGKV3D-20

  • Each of 23 EBV isolates analyzed from this population were also mutated in the EBNA4 416-424 epitope, the mutations selectively involving one of the two anchor residues in positions 2 (417 val-leu) or 9 (424 lys-asp, -arg or -thr) that are critical for A11-peptide interaction [1].
  • Moreover, of the 20 human leukocyte antigen A11 patients, 18 had extrahepatic manifestations associated with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis [2].
  • The protocol for the MUC1+ breast adenocarcinoma cell line SKBr-3 (HLA.A11,B40), which used A11- and B40-specific MAbs, also resulted in the detection of BCP8-specific peaks at approximately 18-19 min [3].
  • The fine Ag specificity of this phenomenon was further analyzed using two promiscuous CTL clones derived from A3 and A11 individuals, respectively, and specific for an epitope in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase [4].
  • We engineered a multiepitope DNA minigene encoding nine dominant HLA-A2.1- and A11-restricted epitopes from the polymerase, envelope, and core proteins of hepatitis B virus and HIV, together with the PADRE (pan-DR epitope) universal Th cell epitope and an endoplasmic reticulum-translocating signal sequence [5].

High impact information on IGKV3D-20

  • The T cell receptor (TCR) repertoires of cytotoxic responses to the immunodominant and subdominant HLA A11-restricted epitopes in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen-4 were investigated in four healthy virus carriers [6].
  • Distinct patterns of interaction with the A11-peptide complex were revealed for each AVF- or IVT-specific TCR clonotype by alanine scanning mutagenesis analysis [6].
  • These changes clearly affected antigenicity since A11-positive lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) carrying these mutant EBV strains were not recognized by A11-restricted CTLs raised against the prototype B95.8 virus [1].
  • In this report we identify HCV-specific CTL responses restricted by the HLA class I molecules A2, A3, A11, A23, B7, B8, and B53 [7].
  • The other gene, also carried on the sixth chromosome and, in the first family, marked by the HLA A11, B27, CW2 haplotype might result in an increased absorption of dietary iron [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of IGKV3D-20

  • OBJECTIVE: The expression pattern of three homeobox genes products, HOX A11, HOX B6, and HOX C6, was examined in normal human placental tissue and abnormal trophoblastic tissue derived from complete hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinoma tumors [9].
  • HLA-A11 expression correlated with reduced susceptibility to NK and interferon-activated cytotoxicity in transfected sublines of the A11-defective Burkitt's lymphoma WW2-BL and the HLA class I A,B-null C1R cell line [10].
  • A soil streptomycete (Streptomyces sp. A11) degraded collagen isolated from bovine Achilles tendon, calf skin, human placenta, carp swim bladder and rat tail tendon and released appreciable quantities of hydroxyproline [11].

Biological context of IGKV3D-20

  • In contrast, the widening of the minor groove at the A11:T14 base-pair ending the TTTA/TAAA segment, likely associated to a high negative propeller twist value at this base-pair, prevents the binding of a water molecule with long residence time to A11 but not to A15 of the preceding T10:A15 base-pair [12].
  • Protein kinase C alpha (PKCalpha) was shown to phosphorylate 10Thr of S100C/A11, which is a critical event for the signal transduction [13].
  • PKCalpha mediates TGFbeta-induced growth inhibition of human keratinocytes via phosphorylation of S100C/A11 [13].
  • The linkage disequilibrium for A3, B7 and A3, B14 (and probably also for A11, B5) was undeniably stronger in hemochromatosis than in controls [14].
  • HLA profiles in 103 members of 4 separate kindred with multiple occurrence of SLE were compatible with the presence of a disease susceptibility factor linked to HLA or a direct effect of antigens B8, A11, and B35 on disease expression [15].

Anatomical context of IGKV3D-20

  • S100C/A11 is a key mediator of Ca(2+)-induced growth inhibition of human epidermal keratinocytes [16].
  • The A6-A11/B7-B19 and A19-A21/B14-B21 disulfide-linked I-Ad-bound rHI peptides were isolated from thymic epithelial cells but not dendritic cells [17].
  • In addition to carrier independence, one of our hybridomas (IT-H6/A11) exhibited a striking promiscuity of MHC restriction [18].
  • We have now investigated the antigenicity, A11 binding capacity, endoplasmic reticulum translocation, endogenous processing, and presentation of these variants [19].
  • Residues in the 1A rod domain segment and the linker L2 are required for stabilizing the A11 molecular alignment mode in keratin intermediate filaments [20].

Associations of IGKV3D-20 with chemical compounds

  • The guest molecule is bound by the R-state monomer through the formation of two hydrogen bonds from the hydroxy group of Tylenol to the carbonyl oxygen and the nitrogen of A6 Cys and A11 Cys, respectively [21].
  • The modified ribozymes were chemically synthesized with the substitution of a single 2'-deoxyadenosine, 2'-deoxyguanosine, inosine, or purine riboside for residues G10, A11, G13, or A14 [22].
  • The side chain of the T-state A11 Cys residue, which forms a disulfide bond to A6 Cys in the same monomer, is observed in two discrete conformations; two discrete conformations are also present for the entire A8 Thr residue in the Rf-state monomer [23].
  • These results indicate that VGLUT2 is expressed in subsets of A10 and A11 dopamine neurons, which might release dopamine and glutamate separately from different varicosities in the majority of their single axons [24].
  • The C. roseus cell suspension culture A11 accumulates the terpenoid indole alkaloids strictosidine, ajmalicine and vindolinine [25].

Other interactions of IGKV3D-20

  • Reduced lineage specificity was also observed for the alleles of the A1/A3/A11/A36groups [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IGKV3D-20

  • CTL preparations from all seven HLA A11-positive donors tested had demonstrable reactivities against the 416-to-429 peptide, whereas reactivities against the other epitopes either tended to be lost on serial passage or, for some of the donors, were never detected [27].
  • We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate sHLA-A2 and sHLA-A1/A3/A11 (as a cross-reacting group) [28].
  • HLA A11 may be a useful marker, in some populations, for identifying at the time of transplantation those patients that are at an increased risk for NMSC and who may therefore be good candidates for preventative clinical trials [29].
  • The meta-analysis found a protective association with A2 antigen in non-Chinese [odds ratio (OR), 0.63; P < 0.001], a protective association with A11 across all races (OR, 0.54; P < 0.001), and an increased risk associated with B5 in Caucasians (OR, 2.81; P < 0.001) [30].
  • None of the mAbs stimulated cyclic AMP responses in COS-7 cells transiently transfected with full-length functioning TSH-R.E, whilst weak inhibition of binding of radiolabelled TSH to porcine membranes in a radioreceptor assay was apparent with mAb A10 and A11, but only at high concentrations of IgG [31].


  1. T cell responses and virus evolution: loss of HLA A11-restricted CTL epitopes in Epstein-Barr virus isolates from highly A11-positive populations by selective mutation of anchor residues. de Campos-Lima, P.O., Levitsky, V., Brooks, J., Lee, S.P., Hu, L.F., Rickinson, A.B., Masucci, M.G. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Two-locus involvement in the association of human leukocyte antigen with the extrahepatic manifestations of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. Marcos, Y., Fainboim, H.A., Capucchio, M., Findor, J., Daruich, J., Reyes, B., Pando, M., Theiler, G.C., Méndez, N., Satz, M.L. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. The anti-MUC1 monoclonal antibody BCP8 can be used to isolate and identify putative major histocompatibility complex class I associated amino acid sequences. Agrawal, B., Reddish, M.A., Christian, B., VanHeele, A., Tang, L., Koganty, R.R., Longenecker, B.M. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Degenerate and promiscuous recognition by CTL of peptides presented by the MHC class I A3-like superfamily: implications for vaccine development. Threlkeld, S.C., Wentworth, P.A., Kalams, S.A., Wilkes, B.M., Ruhl, D.J., Keogh, E., Sidney, J., Southwood, S., Walker, B.D., Sette, A. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Utilization of MHC class I transgenic mice for development of minigene DNA vaccines encoding multiple HLA-restricted CTL epitopes. Ishioka, G.Y., Fikes, J., Hermanson, G., Livingston, B., Crimi, C., Qin, M., del Guercio, M.F., Oseroff, C., Dahlberg, C., Alexander, J., Chesnut, R.W., Sette, A. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Epitope-dependent selection of highly restricted or diverse T cell receptor repertoires in response to persistent infection by Epstein-Barr virus. Campos-Lima, P.O., Levitsky, V., Imreh, M.P., Gavioli, R., Masucci, M.G. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for hepatitis C virus. Identification of multiple epitopes and characterization of patterns of cytokine release. Koziel, M.J., Dudley, D., Afdhal, N., Grakoui, A., Rice, C.M., Choo, Q.L., Houghton, M., Walker, B.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Histocompatibility antigens as markers of abnormal iron metabolism in patients with idiopathic haemochromatosis and their relatives. Bomford, A., Eddleston, A.L., Kennedy, L.A., Batchelor, J.R., Williams, R. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of HOX gene products in normal and abnormal trophoblastic tissue. Amesse, L.S., Moulton, R., Zhang, Y.M., Pfaff-Amesse, T. Gynecol. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. HLA-A11-mediated protection from NK cell-mediated lysis: role of HLA-A11-presented peptides. Gavioli, R., Zhang, Q.J., Masucci, M.G. Hum. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. A collagenolytic streptomycete. Mukhopadhyay, R.P., Chandra, A.L. Indian J. Exp. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. An NMR study of d(CTACTGCTTTAG).d(CTAAAGCAGTAG) showing hydration water molecules in the minor groove of a TpA step. Leporc, S., Mauffret, O., El Antri, S., Convert, O., Lescot, E., Tevanian, G., Fermandjian, S. J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. PKCalpha mediates TGFbeta-induced growth inhibition of human keratinocytes via phosphorylation of S100C/A11. Sakaguchi, M., Miyazaki, M., Sonegawa, H., Kashiwagi, M., Ohba, M., Kuroki, T., Namba, M., Huh, N.H. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. A study of 609 HLA haplotypes marking for the hemochromatosis gene: (1) mapping of the gene near the HLA-A locus and characters required to define a heterozygous population and (2) hypothesis concerning the underlying cause of hemochromatosis-HLA association. Simon, M., Le Mignon, L., Fauchet, R., Yaouanq, J., David, V., Edan, G., Bourel, M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Familial lupus. Family studies of HLA and serologic findings. Cleland, L.G., Bell, D.A., Willans, M., Saurino, B.C. Arthritis Rheum. (1978) [Pubmed]
  16. S100C/A11 is a key mediator of Ca(2+)-induced growth inhibition of human epidermal keratinocytes. Sakaguchi, M., Miyazaki, M., Takaishi, M., Sakaguchi, Y., Makino, E., Kataoka, N., Yamada, H., Namba, M., Huh, N.H. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Naturally processed heterodimeric disulfide-linked insulin peptides bind to major histocompatibility class II molecules on thymic epithelial cells. Forquet, F., Hadzija, M., Semple, J.W., Speck, E., Delovitch, T.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Carrier-independent hapten recognition and promiscuous MHC restriction by CD4 T cells induced by trinitrophenylated peptides. Kohler, J., Hartmann, U., Grimm, R., Pflugfelder, U., Weltzien, H.U. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Natural variants of the immunodominant HLA A11-restricted CTL epitope of the EBV nuclear antigen-4 are nonimmunogenic due to intracellular dissociation from MHC class I:peptide complexes. Levitsky, V., Zhang, Q.J., Levitskaya, J., Kurilla, M.G., Masucci, M.G. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Residues in the 1A rod domain segment and the linker L2 are required for stabilizing the A11 molecular alignment mode in keratin intermediate filaments. Mehrani, T., Wu, K.C., Morasso, M.I., Bryan, J.T., Marekov, L.N., Parry, D.A., Steinert, P.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. The structure of a complex of hexameric insulin and 4'-hydroxyacetanilide. Smith, G.D., Ciszak, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Importance of specific purine amino and hydroxyl groups for efficient cleavage by a hammerhead ribozyme. Fu, D.J., McLaughlin, L.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. A novel complex of a phenolic derivative with insulin: structural features related to the T-->R transition. Smith, G.D., Ciszak, E., Pangborn, W. Protein Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Particular subpopulations of midbrain and hypothalamic dopamine neurons express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 in the rat brain. Kawano, M., Kawasaki, A., Sakata-Haga, H., Fukui, Y., Kawano, H., Nogami, H., Hisano, S. J. Comp. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Proteome analysis of the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus. Jacobs, D.I., Gaspari, M., van der Greef, J., van der Heijden, R., Verpoorte, R. Planta (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. The nature of introns 4-7 largely reflects the lineage specificity of HLA-A alleles. Elsner, H.A., Rozas, J., Blasczyk, R. Immunogenetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Multiple HLA A11-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes of different immunogenicities in the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 4. Gavioli, R., Kurilla, M.G., de Campos-Lima, P.O., Wallace, L.E., Dolcetti, R., Murray, R.J., Rickinson, A.B., Masucci, M.G. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Serologic allogeneic chimerism. McDonald, J.C., Adamashvili, I., Zibari, G.B., Aultman, D.F., Mancini, M.C., McMillan, R.W., Gelder, F.B. Transplantation (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Human leukocyte antigen type as a risk factor for nonmelanomatous skin cancer in patients after renal transplantation. Bock, A., Bliss, R.L., Matas, A., Little, J.A. Transplantation (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Associations between human leukocyte antigen type and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Caucasians in the United States. Burt, R.D., Vaughan, T.L., McKnight, B., Davis, S., Beckmann, A.M., Smith, A.G., Nisperos, B., Swanson, G.M., Berwick, M. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Monoclonal antibodies to the human TSH receptor: epitope mapping and binding to the native receptor on the basolateral plasma membrane of thyroid follicular cells. Nicholson, L.B., Vlase, H., Graves, P., Nilsson, M., Molne, J., Huang, G.C., Morgenthaler, N.G., Davies, T.F., McGregor, A.M., Banga, J.P. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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