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Gene Review

DROSHA  -  drosha, ribonuclease type III

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ETOHI2, Etohi2, HSA242976, Protein Drosha, RANSE3L, ...
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Disease relevance of RNASEN


High impact information on RNASEN

  • Molecular basis for the recognition of primary microRNAs by the Drosha-DGCR8 complex [5].
  • While Dicer, which produces small interfering RNAs, is currently the focus of intense interest, the structurally simpler bacterial RNase III serves as a paradigm for the entire family [6].
  • A pattern of protein-RNA interactions, defined by four RNA binding motifs in RNase III and three protein-interacting boxes in dsRNA, is responsible for substrate specificity, while conserved amino acid residues and divalent cations are responsible for scissile-bond cleavage [6].
  • The structure reveals a wealth of information about the mechanism of RNA hydrolysis that can be extrapolated to other RNase III family members [6].
  • Based on these and other data, we propose that Dicer functions through intramolecular dimerization of its two RNase III domains, assisted by the flanking RNA binding domains, PAZ and dsRBD [3].

Biological context of RNASEN


Anatomical context of RNASEN

  • We also examined RNASEN protein expression in 27 cell lines [1].
  • In an immunohistochemical study, the intensity of RNASEN expression was often increased in the tumor compared with that in normal epithelium [1].
  • BACKGROUND: Members of the ribonuclease III superfamily of double-stranded(ds)-RNA-specific endoribonucleases participate in diverse RNA maturation and decay pathways in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells [9].
  • It is suggested that conversion between these structures may have a role in termination; this may be influenced by interactions with ribosomes and RNase III [10].
  • Identification of putative rat ribonuclease III by differential display: a novel rat mRNA expressed in a circadian manner in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus [11].

Associations of RNASEN with chemical compounds

  • The bridging phosphinidene complexes [Mn2(CO)8(micro-PNiPr2)] and [Co2(CO)4(micro-dppm)(micro-PNR2)](NR2=NiPr2, TMP) react with heterocumulenes RN3, CH2N2 and Ph2C=N=N to form complexes with micro-eta1,eta2-aminophosphaimine, micro-eta1,eta2-aminophosphaalkene and micro-eta1,eta2-aminophosphadiphenylmethylazaimine ligands, respectively [12].
  • Intron-encoded and polycistronic snoRNAs are released from primary transcripts as pre-snoRNAs by the spliceosome or by an RNase III-like activity, respectively [13].
  • On the basis of structural, genetic, and biological data, we have constructed a hypothetical model of Aa-RNase III in complex with dsRNA and Mg(2+) ion, which provides the first glimpse of RNase III in action [14].
  • They were digested by RNase III in a buffer containing manganese ions, then separated on 15% non-denaturing PAGE, and the siRNAs about 25 bp in length were recovered. siRNAs prepared with CFDP were co-transfected with target gene expression plasmid into human cell lines with lipofectamine 2,000 to test their inhibition efficiency [15].
  • To assess the involvement of the RNA cleavage site-proximal 2' hydroxyl group in the RNase III catalytic mechanism, a specific processing substrate was chemically synthesized to contain a 2'-deoxyribose residue at the scissile phosphodiester bond [16].

Physical interactions of RNASEN

  • In this complex, Drosha interacts with DGCR8, which contains two double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding domains [7].

Enzymatic interactions of RNASEN

  • The bidentate RNase III Dicer cleaves microRNA precursors to generate the 21-23 nt long mature RNAs [17].

Other interactions of RNASEN

  • Two members of the ribonuclease (RNase) III endonuclease protein family, Drosha and Dicer, have been implicated in this two-step processing (10-13) [2].
  • The Drosha-DGCR8 complex initiates microRNA maturation by precise cleavage of the stem loops that are embedded in primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) [5].
  • The discrepancy between pri-miRNA and miR expression following overload was not explained by a change in the expression of components of the miRNA biogenesis pathway, since Drosha and Exportin-5 transcript levels were significantly increased by 50% in response to functional overload, whereas Dicer expression remained unchanged [18].
  • In vitro RNA-RNA binding experiments demonstrated that the incubation of expanded CUG repeats with CUGBP1 RNA generated a higher molecular weight band, which was digested by RNase III [19].
  • Drosha versus ADAR: wrangling over pri-miRNA [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RNASEN


  1. RNASEN Regulates Cell Proliferation and Affects Survival in Esophageal Cancer Patients. Sugito, N., Ishiguro, H., Kuwabara, Y., Kimura, M., Mitsui, A., Kurehara, H., Ando, T., Mori, R., Takashima, N., Ogawa, R., Fujii, Y. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. MicroRNA biogenesis: isolation and characterization of the microprocessor complex. Gregory, R.I., Chendrimada, T.P., Shiekhattar, R. Methods Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Single processing center models for human Dicer and bacterial RNase III. Zhang, H., Kolb, F.A., Jaskiewicz, L., Westhof, E., Filipowicz, W. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. RNase III cleavage of single-stranded RNA. Effect of ionic strength on the fideltiy of cleavage. Dunn, J.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular basis for the recognition of primary microRNAs by the Drosha-DGCR8 complex. Han, J., Lee, Y., Yeom, K.H., Nam, J.W., Heo, I., Rhee, J.K., Sohn, S.Y., Cho, Y., Zhang, B.T., Kim, V.N. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Structural insight into the mechanism of double-stranded RNA processing by ribonuclease III. Gan, J., Tropea, J.E., Austin, B.P., Court, D.L., Waugh, D.S., Ji, X. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. The Drosha-DGCR8 complex in primary microRNA processing. Han, J., Lee, Y., Yeom, K.H., Kim, Y.K., Jin, H., Kim, V.N. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Recognition and cleavage of primary microRNA precursors by the nuclear processing enzyme Drosha. Zeng, Y., Yi, R., Cullen, B.R. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Mouse ribonuclease III. cDNA structure, expression analysis, and chromosomal location. Fortin, K.R., Nicholson, R.H., Nicholson, A.W. BMC Genomics (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Control sites in the sequence at the beginning of T7 gene 1. McConnell, D.J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of putative rat ribonuclease III by differential display: a novel rat mRNA expressed in a circadian manner in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus. Bhogal, R.K., Mitchell, A.L., Coen, C.W. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Reactivity of electrophilic micro-phosphinidene complexes with heterocumulenes: formation of the first sigma-pi-aminophosphaimine complexes [Mn2(CO)8{micro-eta1,eta2-P(NiPr2)=NR}] and diazoalkane insertions into metal-phosphorus bonds. Graham, T.W., Udachin, K.A., Carty, A.J. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Non-coding snoRNA host genes in Drosophila: expression strategies for modification guide snoRNAs. Tycowski, K.T., Steitz, J.A. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Crystallographic and modeling studies of RNase III suggest a mechanism for double-stranded RNA cleavage. Blaszczyk, J., Tropea, J.E., Bubunenko, M., Routzahn, K.M., Waugh, D.S., Court, D.L., Ji, X. Structure (Camb.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Cost-effective method of siRNA preparation and its application to inhibit hepatitis B virus replication in HepG2 cells. Qian, Z.K., Xuan, B.Q., Min, T.S., Xu, J.F., Li, L., Huang, W.D. World J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Accurate enzymatic cleavage in vitro of a 2'-deoxyribose-substituted ribonuclease III processing signal. Nicholson, A.W. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Human let-7 stem-loop precursors harbor features of RNase III cleavage products. Basyuk, E., Suavet, F., Doglio, A., Bordonné, R., Bertrand, E. Nucleic Acids Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. MicroRNA-1 and microRNA-133a expression are decreased during skeletal muscle hypertrophy. McCarthy, J.J., Esser, K.A. J. Appl. Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Altered expression of CUG binding protein 1 mRNA in myotonic dystrophy 1: possible RNA-RNA interaction. Watanabe, T., Takagi, A., Sasagawa, N., Ishiura, S., Nakase, H. Neurosci. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Drosha versus ADAR: wrangling over pri-miRNA. O'Connell, M.A., Keegan, L.P. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of a chlorella virus PBCV-1 encoded ribonuclease III. Zhang, Y., Calin-Jageman, I., Gurnon, J.R., Choi, T.J., Adams, B., Nicholson, A.W., Van Etten, J.L. Virology (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal RNase III domain of human Dicer. Takeshita, D., Zenno, S., Lee, W.C., Nagata, K., Saigo, K., Tanokura, M. Acta Crystallograph. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
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