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Gene Review

SSD  -  Speech-sound disorder

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of SSD

  • Moreover, it appears that early gestational rubella exposure may represent a period of increased vulnerability for SSD [1].
  • We sought to examine the relationship between maternal exposure to adult respiratory infections and schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in the Prenatal Determinants of Schizophrenia (PDS) Study, a large birth cohort investigation [2].
  • Among the patients with SSD, the incidence of nailfold bleeding in scleroderma, mixed connective tissue disease, and Raynaud's phenomenon with specific ANA was similar [3].
  • Sequence analysis of the V3 region of HIV-1 isolates indicated that patients with high-affinity/avidity antibodies to PNDMN and PNDSC had a PND with an internal 12-amino acid sequence (serotype-specific domain, SSD) that was highly homologous (> 90%) with the MN and SC SSD [4].
  • The speech and language deficits associated with SSD are shared with several other disorders, including dyslexia, autism, Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), and Angelman's Syndrome (AS), raising the possibility of gene sharing [5].

Psychiatry related information on SSD

  • SSD is prevalent in childhood and is comorbid with disorders of language, spelling, and reading disability, or dyslexia [6].
  • We then used two methods of multipoint model-free linkage analysis to evaluate SSD and LI psychometric test measures over a region previously implicated in linkage studies of RD, DYX8 region, 1p34-p36 [7].
  • Patients were divided on the basis of intake MDE recovery into residual depressive symptoms (SSD; N=82) and asymptomatic (N=155) recovery groups [8].
  • Children with SSD should receive assessments of their speech perception, receptive vocabulary, PA, and emergent literacy skills [9].
  • These findings, from a large sample of representative US psychiatric patients, demonstrate the ongoing need for improved services and policies for those specially burdened patients with the dual diagnosis of both an SSD and substance abuse or dependence [10].

High impact information on SSD

  • To explore common genetic influences on SSD and reading, we examined linkage for several quantitative traits to markers in the pericentrometric region of chromosome 3 in 77 families ascertained through a child with SSD [6].
  • Our results suggest that domains common to SSD and dyslexia are pleiotropically influenced by a putative quantitative trait locus on chromosome 3 [6].
  • Binding is abrogated by deletion of residues 219-244 that lie within SSD, a novel substrate specificity element of the ATPase subdomain [11].
  • SSD is essential for protein translocation, is unique to SecA, and is absent from other DEAD proteins [11].
  • RESULTS: Mean folate intakes at 10 wk were 601 +/- 143 microgram/d with the PMP and 270 +/- 107 microgram/d with the SSD [12].

Biological context of SSD


Anatomical context of SSD

  • RESULTS: The frequency of nailfold bleeding was significantly higher in SSD (75.3%) than in other connective tissue diseases (12.1%) and in controls (3.0%) [3].
  • Erythrocyte elongation was determined as an indicator of erythrocyte deformability using a shear stress diffractometer (Rheodyn SSD) at shear forces of 0.3 to 60 Pa [14].
  • Likewise, we have evaluated the dose in gonads and the contribution that each technique provides to the genetically significant dose (GSD = 158.59 microGy) and to the somatic significant dose (SSD = 3.19 mSv-year) [15].
  • These data indicate that anticentriole antibody is very rare and that the antibodies against mitosis-related antigens such as centromere and centriole are associated with early SSD [16].
  • Approximately rectangular low or medium energy electron fields at extended SSD are often used to boost over the spinal cord in the treatment of head and neck cancer after cord tolerance is reached [17].

Associations of SSD with chemical compounds

  • Build-up ionization measurements were made with the chamber fitted into a 25 x 25 x 25 cm polystyrene phantom with a fixed SSD of 100 cm [18].
  • Modification of a standard cobalt-60 unit for total body irradiation at 150 cm SSD [19].
  • In 4 of 6 cases of SSD, plasma ET-1 levels increased (2.06 +/- 0.39 pg/ml), however, nitrate levels increased and serotonin decreased in 3 of 5 cases of SSD [20].
  • In the case of close-ended applicators (with an end plate of 3.2 mm thick PMMA), extending SSD results in significant changes in output and in PDDs, but has little effect on beam penumbra and flatness for gaps up to 15 cm [21].
  • The content of Fe, DCB- and AOD-extractable iron oxides correlated positively with the concentration of fine grained magnetite near the superparamagnetic/stable single domain (SP/SSD, approximately 0.03 microm) boundary, and with anti-ferromagnetic minerals (hematite/goethite) [22].

Other interactions of SSD

  • It describes how this model evolved out of our attempts to understand two comorbidities, those between dyslexia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and between dyslexia and speech sound disorder (SSD) [23].
  • METHODS: The studies were performed using the SSD 2000 Multiview Ultrasound Scanner and the UST 5536 7.0-MHz laparoscopic transducer probe [24].
  • For commissioning electron beams generated by the Philips/Elekta models SL 15, SLi Precise and SLi, guidelines can be found from this work for the following parameters: actual field size at 100 SSD (up to +/- 0.6%) (different from manufacturer specified values at 95 SSD), and virtual source distance (up to +/- 0.7%) [25].
  • The plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels of PSS, SSD and HC were 1.98 +/- 0.69, 1.76 +/- 0.39 and 1.15 +/- 0.38 pg/ml, respectively [20].
  • Conversion of PDD for photon beams from one SSD to another and calculation of TAR, TMR and TPR [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SSD

  • It is argued that %dd(10), the percentage depth dose at 10 cm in a 10 x 10 cm2 photon beam at a SSD of 100 cm, is a better beam quality specifier for radiotherapy beams than the commonly used values of TPR10(20) or nominal accelerating potential (NAP) [27].
  • In athymic mice, half-body irradiation was performed in an AECL Cobalt unit, at an SSD of 80 cm [28].
  • A careful comparison has then been made with relative exposure vs depth curves obtained using TLD at several mammography beam qualities, for identical exposure factors and SSD values [29].
  • Fourteen patients with a dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and SSD were compared with 14 controls with intellectual disability alone [30].
  • Thirty-one tumors, lying in the lower two-thirds of the rectum and possibly suitable for local excision, were analyzed by endorectal ultrasonography (EUS) using the Aloka scanner SSD 520 [31].


  1. A.E. Bennett Research Award. Prenatal rubella, premorbid abnormalities, and adult schizophrenia. Brown, A.S., Cohen, P., Harkavy-Friedman, J., Babulas, V., Malaspina, D., Gorman, J.M., Susser, E.S. Biol. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Maternal exposure to respiratory infections and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective birth cohort study. Brown, A.S., Schaefer, C.A., Wyatt, R.J., Goetz, R., Begg, M.D., Gorman, J.M., Susser, E.S. Schizophrenia bulletin. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Diagnostic significance of nailfold bleeding in scleroderma spectrum disorders. Sato, S., Takehara, K., Soma, Y., Tsuchida, T., Ishibashi, Y. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Pattern of antibody response against the V3 loop in children with vertically acquired immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. De Rossi, A., Zanotto, C., Mammano, F., Ometto, L., Del Mistro, A., Chieco-Bianchi, L. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Speech sound disorder influenced by a locus in 15q14 region. Stein, C.M., Millard, C., Kluge, A., Miscimarra, L.E., Cartier, K.C., Freebairn, L.A., Hansen, A.J., Shriberg, L.D., Taylor, H.G., Lewis, B.A., Iyengar, S.K. Behav. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Pleiotropic effects of a chromosome 3 locus on speech-sound disorder and reading. Stein, C.M., Schick, J.H., Gerry Taylor, H., Shriberg, L.D., Millard, C., Kundtz-Kluge, A., Russo, K., Minich, N., Hansen, A., Freebairn, L.A., Elston, R.C., Lewis, B.A., Iyengar, S.K. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Further Evidence of Pleiotropy Influencing Speech and Language: Analysis of the DYX8 Region. Miscimarra, L., Stein, C., Millard, C., Kluge, A., Cartier, K., Freebairn, L., Hansen, A., Shriberg, L., Taylor, H.G., Lewis, B., Iyengar, S.K. Hum. Hered. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Major depressive disorder: a prospective study of residual subthreshold depressive symptoms as predictor of rapid relapse. Judd, L.L., Akiskal, H.S., Maser, J.D., Zeller, P.J., Endicott, J., Coryell, W., Paulus, M.P., Kunovac, J.L., Leon, A.C., Mueller, T.I., Rice, J.A., Keller, M.B. Journal of affective disorders. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Correlates of phonological awareness in preschoolers with speech sound disorders. Rvachew, S., Grawburg, M. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. The associations between substance use disorders, schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, and Axis IV psychosocial problems. Compton, M.T., Weiss, P.S., West, J.C., Kaslow, N.J. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Allosteric communication between signal peptides and the SecA protein DEAD motor ATPase domain. Baud, C., Karamanou, S., Sianidis, G., Vrontou, E., Politou, A.S., Economou, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Increased dietary micronutrients decrease serum homocysteine concentrations in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Chait, A., Malinow, M.R., Nevin, D.N., Morris, C.D., Eastgard, R.L., Kris-Etherton, P., Pi-Sunyer, F.X., Oparil, S., Resnick, L.M., Stern, J.S., Haynes, R.B., Hatton, D.C., Metz, J.A., Clark, S., McMahon, M., Holcomb, S., Reusser, M.E., Snyder, G.W., McCarron, D.A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Saccadic suppression of displacement: separate influences of saccade size and of target retinal eccentricity. Li, W., Matin, L. Vision Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of erythropoietin on erythrocyte deformability in non-transfused preterm infants. Klipp, M., Holzwarth, A.U., Poeschl, J.M., Nelle, M., Linderkamp, O. Acta Paediatr. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Organ doses, detriment and genetic risk from simple X-ray examinations in Málaga (Spain). Pérez Martínez, M., Ruiz Cruces, R., Martínez Morillo, M., Díez de los Ríos Delgado, A. European journal of radiology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Antibodies to centromere and centriole in scleroderma spectrum disorders. Sato, S., Fujimoto, M., Ihn, H., Takehara, K. Dermatology (Basel) (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Dosimetric comparison of centered and off-centered posterior neck electron fields. Yorke, E.D., Kassaee, A., Lin, L.C., Rosenthal, D.I. Medical dosimetry : official journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Dose measurements in the build-up region for the photon beams from Clinac-1800 dual energy medical linear accelerator. Ravikumar, M., Ravichandran, R. Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Modification of a standard cobalt-60 unit for total body irradiation at 150 cm SSD. Peters, V.G., Herer, A.S. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. The effect of electrical acupuncture-stimulation therapy using thermography and plasma endothelin (ET-1) levels in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). Maeda, M., Kachi, H., Ichihashi, N., Oyama, Z., Kitajima, Y. J. Dermatol. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Characteristics of orthovoltage x-ray therapy beams at extended SSD for applicators with end plates. Li, X.A., Salhani, D., Ma, C.M. Physics in medicine and biology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Diagenesis of magnetic minerals in the intertidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary, China, and its environmental significance. Zhang, W., Yu, L., Hutchinson, S.M. Sci. Total Environ. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. From single to multiple deficit models of developmental disorders. Pennington, B.F. Cognition. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Laparoscopic insufflation of the abdomen reduces portal venous flow. Jakimowicz, J., Stultiëns, G., Smulders, F. Surgical endoscopy. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Comparison of characteristics of photon and electron beams generated by Philips/Elekta and Varian linear accelerators. Song, H., Xiao, Y., Galvin, J.M. Medical physics. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Conversion of PDD for photon beams from one SSD to another and calculation of TAR, TMR and TPR. Burns, J.E. BJR supplement / BIR. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. Beam quality specification for photon beam dosimetry. Kosunen, A., Rogers, D.W. Medical physics. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. In vivo radiosensitizing effect of the adenovirus E1A gene in murine and human malignant tumors. Martin-Duque, P., Sánchez-Prieto, R., Romero, J., Martinez-Lamparero, A., Cebrian-Sagarriga, S., Guinea-Viniegra, J., Dominguez, C., Lleonart, M., Cano, A., Quintanilla, M., Ramón Y Cajal, S. Int. J. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Comparison of ion chamber and TLD dosimetry in mammography. Stanton, L., Day, J.L., Brattelli, S.D., Lightfoot, D.A., Vince, M.A., Stanton, R.E. Medical physics. (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Cerebral dominance and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in adults with intellectual disability. Rowe, D., Rudkin, A., Crawford, L. Journal of intellectual disability research : JIDR. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Endorectal ultrasonography for staging small rectal tumors: technique and contribution to treatment. Detry, R.J., Kartheuser, A., Kestens, P.J. World journal of surgery. (1993) [Pubmed]
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