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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

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Disease relevance of Mixed Connective Tissue Disease


High impact information on Mixed Connective Tissue Disease


Chemical compound and disease context of Mixed Connective Tissue Disease


Biological context of Mixed Connective Tissue Disease


Anatomical context of Mixed Connective Tissue Disease


Gene context of Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

  • In SLE and PSS patients plasma concentrations of both types of TNF receptors and in MCTD patients type A TNF receptors were significantly elevated compared to controls [24].
  • The percentage of PCNA-positive PBMC in patients with SLE was 0-20% (mean: 2.63%) which was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) compared with normal controls (mean: 0.18%), patients with rheumatoid arthritis (mean: 0.83%), and patients with mixed connective tissue disease (mean: 0.38%) [25].
  • In contrast, the highest CRP levels were observed in RA patients, followed by the MCTD patients [26].
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that MCTD is associated with increased production of both type 1 (IFN-gamma) and type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10) [27].
  • We conclude that MCTD patients have high immunoglobulin levels as well as high CRP levels and that this situation is compatible with the observed increase in both type 1 and type 2 cytokine levels [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Mixed Connective Tissue Disease


  1. Gastrointestinal manifestations of mixed connective tissue disease. Marshall, J.B., Kretschmar, J.M., Gerhardt, D.C., Winship, D.H., Winn, D., Treadwell, E.L., Sharp, G.C. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Ibuprofen-related meningitis in mixed connective tissue disease. Bernstein, R.F. Ann. Intern. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Nucleosomes are major T and B cell autoantigens in systemic lupus erythematosus. Bruns, A., Bläss, S., Hausdorf, G., Burmester, G.R., Hiepe, F. Arthritis Rheum. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of autoantibodies to the I protein of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex in patients with systemic sclerosis. Montecucco, C., Caporali, R., Cobianchi, F., Biamonti, G. Arthritis Rheum. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Mapping of multiple B cell epitopes on the 70-kilodalton autoantigen of the U1 ribonucleoprotein complex. Cram, D.S., Fisicaro, N., Coppel, R.L., Whittingham, S., Harrison, L.C. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle assembly in vivo: demonstration of a 6S RNA-free core precursor and posttranslational modification. Fisher, D.E., Conner, G.E., Reeves, W.H., Wisniewolski, R., Blobel, G. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Autoantibodies to nucleosomal proteins: antibodies to HMG-17 in autoimmune diseases. Bustin, M., Reisch, J., Einck, L., Klippel, J.H. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Proteasome alpha-type subunit C9 is a primary target of autoantibodies in sera of patients with myositis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Feist, E., Dörner, T., Kuckelkorn, U., Schmidtke, G., Micheel, B., Hiepe, F., Burmester, G.R., Kloetzel, P.M. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Plasma endothelin correlates with antiendothelial antibodies in patients with mixed connective tissue disease. Filep, J.G., Bodolay, E., Sipka, S., Gyimesi, E., Csipö, I., Szegedi, G. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. A murine model of mixed connective tissue disease induced with U1 small nuclear RNP autoantigen. Greidinger, E.L., Zang, Y., Jaimes, K., Hogenmiller, S., Nassiri, M., Bejarano, P., Barber, G.N., Hoffman, R.W. Arthritis Rheum. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Human T cell clones reactive against U-small nuclear ribonucleoprotein autoantigens from connective tissue disease patients and healthy individuals. Hoffman, R.W., Takeda, Y., Sharp, G.C., Lee, D.R., Hill, D.L., Kaneoka, H., Caldwell, C.W. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Pravastatin-induced rhabdomyolysis in a patient with mixed connective tissue disease. Hino, I., Akama, H., Furuya, T., Ueda, H., Taniguchi, A., Hara, M., Kashiwazaki, S. Arthritis Rheum. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Zinc is an essential cofactor for recognition of the DNA binding domain of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase by antibodies in autoimmune rheumatic and bowel diseases. Decker, P., Briand, J.P., de Murcia, G., Pero, R.W., Isenberg, D.A., Muller, S. Arthritis Rheum. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Serotonin content of platelets in inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Correlation with clinical activity. Zeller, J., Weissbarth, E., Baruth, B., Mielke, H., Deicher, H. Arthritis Rheum. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. A prospective evaluation emphasizing pulmonary involvement in patients with mixed connective tissue disease. Sullivan, W.D., Hurst, D.J., Harmon, C.E., Esther, J.H., Agia, G.A., Maltby, J.D., Lillard, S.B., Held, C.N., Wolfe, J.F., Sunderrajan, E.V. Medicine (Baltimore) (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Autoimmune response to the spliceosome. An immunologic link between rheumatoid arthritis, mixed connective tissue disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Hassfeld, W., Steiner, G., Studnicka-Benke, A., Skriner, K., Graninger, W., Fischer, I., Smolen, J.S. Arthritis Rheum. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Association of immunoglobulin Km and Gm allotypes with specific antinuclear antibodies and disease susceptibility among connective tissue disease patients. Hoffman, R.W., Sharp, G.C., Irvin, W.S., Anderson, S.K., Hewett, J.E., Pandey, J.P. Arthritis Rheum. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Different distribution of T cell receptor beta-chain haplotypes in mixed connective tissue disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. Ikäheimo, I.L., Tiilikainen, A.S., Hämeenkorpi, R., Silvennoinen-Kassinen, S.H. Ann. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  19. Free serum ribonucleoprotein in mixed connective tissue disease and other connective tissue diseases. Fishbein, E., Ramos-Niembro, F., Alarcon-Segovia, D. J. Rheumatol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. T lymphocyte interaction with immunoglobulin G antibody in systemic lupus erythematosus. Okudaira, K., Searles, R.P., Tanimoto, K., Horiuchi, Y., Williams, R.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Antimyenteric neuronal antibodies in scleroderma. Howe, S., Eaker, E.Y., Sallustio, J.E., Peebles, C., Tan, E.M., Williams, R.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Human autoantibody secreted by immortalized lymphocyte cell line against the 68K polypeptide of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein. Chen, J.T., Takeda, Y., Vanderslice, W.E., Sharp, G.C., Pettersson, I., Rosén, A., Wigzell, H., Wang, R.J. Arthritis Rheum. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Hypothyroidism associated with mixed connective tissue disease and its response to steroid therapy. Withrington, R.H., Seifert, M.H. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Evaluation of soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptors and TNF receptor antibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematodes, progressive systemic sclerosis, and mixed connective tissue disease. Heilig, B., Fiehn, C., Brockhaus, M., Gallati, H., Pezzutto, A., Hunstein, W. J. Clin. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells detected by murine monoclonal antibodies to proliferating cell nuclear antigen in active lupus patients. Murashima, A., Takasaki, Y., Ohgaki, M., Hashimoto, H., Shirai, T., Hirose, S. J. Clin. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Increased serum levels of immunoglobulins, C-reactive protein, type 1 and type 2 cytokines in patients with mixed connective tissue disease. Bakri Hassan, A., Rönnelid, J., Gunnarsson, I., Karlsson, G., Berg, L., Lundberg, I. J. Autoimmun. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Serum cytokine levels and type 1 and type 2 intracellular T cell cytokine profiles in mixed connective tissue disease. Bodolay, E., Aleksza, M., Antal-Szalmás, P., Végh, J., Szodoray, P., Soltész, P., Szegedi, A., Szekanecz, Z. J. Rheumatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Circulating immune complexes in mixed connective tissue disease. Halla, J.T., Volanakis, J.E., Schrohenloher, R.E. Arthritis Rheum. (1979) [Pubmed]
  29. The use of immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation of (U) small nuclear ribonucleoproteins in the analysis of sera of patients with mixed connective tissue disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. A cross-sectional, longitudinal study. Pettersson, I., Wang, G., Smith, E.I., Wigzell, H., Hedfors, E., Horn, J., Sharp, G.C. Arthritis Rheum. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Substrate specificity of antinuclear antibodies in scleroderma. Blaszczyk, M., Beutner, E.H., Rogozinski, T., Rzesa, G., Jarzabek-Chorzelska, M., Jablonska, S., Chorzelski, T.P. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  31. Use of recombinant RNP peptides 70K and A in an ELISA for measurement of antibodies in mixed connective tissue disease: a longitudinal follow up of 18 patients. de Rooij, D.J., Habets, W.J., van de Putte, L.B., Hoet, M.H., Verbeek, A.L., van Venrooij, W.J. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Intraoperative plateletpheresis and autologous platelet gel do not reduce chest tube drainage or allogeneic blood transfusion after reoperative coronary artery bypass graft. Wajon, P., Gibson, J., Calcroft, R., Hughes, C., Thrift, B. Anesth. Analg. (2001) [Pubmed]
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