The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

GHRL  -  ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide

Gallus gallus

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of GHR


High impact information on GHR

  • Sequencing of the whole coding region of the chicken GHR cDNA identified a G-to-T transversion segregating with the SLD phenotype and generating an isoleucine instead of a serine at position 199 within a highly conserved region close to the junction between the extracellular and transmembrane domains [1].
  • Having previously demonstrated the responsibility of the human GHR gene in the Laron phenotype, we focused our analysis on the corresponding gene in SLD chickens [1].
  • Transfection of a mutated GHR cDNA containing this mutation into eukaryotic cells led to the synthesis of a receptor protein that displayed impaired plasma membrane expression and binding activity [1].
  • Chicken ghrelin mRNA is predominantly expressed in the stomach, where it is present in the proventriculus but absent in the gizzard [4].
  • In addition, chicken ghrelin also increases plasma corticosterone levels in growing chicks at a lower dose than in mammals [4].

Biological context of GHR


Anatomical context of GHR

  • The level of ghrelin mRNA increased in proventriculus in response to fasting but did not decline with subsequent refeeding [7].
  • Ghrelin mRNA levels declined in broiler pancreas after a 48 h fast and increased upon refeeding [7].
  • (1) Ghrelin is a novel endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) and is expressed primarily in the stomach and hypothalamus with the probable function of stimulating GH secretion and food intake both in mammals and poultry [6].
  • On the contrary, in extrahepatic tissues such as spleen, lung, brain, kidney, heart, intestine, thymus, and muscle, IGF-I mRNA expression was equally observed in normal and GHR-lacking dwarf chickens [8].
  • Since GH- and GHR-like proteins are present in most tissues of the chick embryo, it is proposed that extrapituitary GH may act as a local growth factor during embryonic development [9].

Associations of GHR with chemical compounds


Other interactions of GHR

  • These results indicate that central ghrelin does not interact with NPY as seen in rodents, but instead inhibits food intake by interacting with the endogenous CRF and its receptor [5].
  • Co-injection of a CRF receptor antagonist, astressin, attenuated ghrelin-induced plasma corticosterone increase and anorexia [5].
  • Expression of the gene encoding the receptor for ghrelin (growth hormone secretagogue receptor, GHS-R) and a variant form was detected in a variety of tissues collected from 3-week-old male broiler chickens possibly suggesting autocrine/paracrine effects [7].
  • In addition, one SNP in 5'UTR (C223G) determined the presence or absence of a potential binding site of transcription factor serum response factor (SRF), which might affect the expression of chicken ghrelin gene [6].
  • The sex-linked dwarf (dwdw) chicken represents a valuable animal model for studying GH insensitivity and the consequence of mutations in the GH receptor (GHR) gene [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GHR


  1. A naturally occurring growth hormone receptor mutation: in vivo and in vitro evidence for the functional importance of the WS motif common to all members of the cytokine receptor superfamily. Duriez, B., Sobrier, M.L., Duquesnoy, P., Tixier-Boichard, M., Decuypere, E., Coquerelle, G., Zeman, M., Goossens, M., Amselem, S. Mol. Endocrinol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Developmental expression of hepatic growth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA in the chicken. Burnside, J., Cogburn, L.A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Autoregulation of central and peripheral growth hormone receptor mRNA in domestic fowl. Hull, K.L., Harvey, S. J. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Chicken ghrelin: purification, cDNA cloning, and biological activity. Kaiya, H., Van Der Geyten, S., Kojima, M., Hosoda, H., Kitajima, Y., Matsumoto, M., Geelissen, S., Darras, V.M., Kangawa, K. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Inhibitory effect of ghrelin on food intake is mediated by the corticotropin-releasing factor system in neonatal chicks. Saito, E.S., Kaiya, H., Tachibana, T., Tomonaga, S., Denbow, D.M., Kangawa, K., Furuse, M. Regul. Pept. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Genomic organisation of the chicken ghrelin gene and its single nucleotide polymorphisms detected by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. Nie, Q., Zeng, H., Lei, M., Ishag, N.A., Fang, M., Sun, B., Yang, G., Zhang, X. Br. Poult. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of turkey and chicken ghrelin genes, and regulation of ghrelin and ghrelin receptor mRNA levels in broiler chickens. Richards, M.P., Poch, S.M., McMurtry, J.P. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Growth hormone-independent expression of insulin-like growth factor I messenger ribonucleic acid in extrahepatic tissues of the chicken. Tanaka, M., Hayashida, Y., Sakaguchi, K., Ohkubo, T., Wakita, M., Hoshino, S., Nakashima, K. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Extra-pituitary growth hormone in peripheral tissues of early chick embryos. Harvey, S., Johnson, C.D., Sanders, E.J. J. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Novel expression and functional role of ghrelin in chicken ovary. Sirotkin, A.V., Grossmann, R., María-Peon, M.T., Roa, J., Tena-Sempere, M., Klein, S. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Exogenous administration of octanoic acid accelerates octanoylated ghrelin production in the proventriculus of neonatal chicks. Yamato, M., Sakata, I., Wada, R., Kaiya, H., Sakai, T. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Chicken ghrelin and growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 inhibit food intake of neonatal chicks. Saito, E.S., Kaiya, H., Takagi, T., Yamasaki, I., Denbow, D.M., Kangawa, K., Furuse, M. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. The role of ghrelin and some intracellular mechanisms in controlling the secretory activity of chicken ovarian cells. Sirotkin, A.V., Grossmann, R. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Dysfunctional growth hormone receptor in a strain of sex-linked dwarf chicken: evidence for a mutation in the intracellular domain. Agarwal, S.K., Cogburn, L.A., Burnside, J. J. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Ghrelin in plants: what is the function of an appetite hormone in plants? Aydin, S., Geckil, H., Zengin, F., Ibrahim Ozercan, H., Karatas, F., Aydin, S., Turgut-Balik, D., Ozkan, Y., Dagli, F., Celik, V. Peptides (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Existence of ghrelin-immunopositive and -expressing cells in the proventriculus of the hatching and adult chicken. Wada, R., Sakata, I., Kaiya, H., Nakamura, K., Hayashi, Y., Kangawa, K., Sakai, T. Regul. Pept. (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities