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Chemical Compound Review

VASOTOCIN     1-[[(4S,7S,10S,16S,19S)-19- amino-10-(2...

Synonyms: Argiprestocin, Argiprestocina, Argiprestocine, Arg-vasotocin, KST-1A9943, ...
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Disease relevance of Argiprestocin


Psychiatry related information on Argiprestocin

  • Based on this foundation, we then advance three major questions which are fundamental to a broad conceptualization of AVT/AVP social behavior functions: (1) Are there sufficient data to suggest that certain peptide functions or anatomical characteristics (neuron, fiber, and receptor distributions) are conserved across the vertebrate classes [5]?
  • In summary, AVT influenced locomotor activity in bullfrog tadpoles and female frogs [6].
  • After an initial rise in serum AVT, mesotocin and prolactin levels during mild and moderate dehydration, concentrations of both AVT and prolactin tended to normalize during continued water deprivation, while those of mesotocin remained high throughout the whole dehydration experiment with the highest at the end of the water-deprivation period [2].
  • We found that AVT reduced the initiation of aggressive social interactions with other pupfish but had no effect on courtship [1].
  • AVT increased courtship independent of status, while its effects on territoriality and aggression were dependent upon male status [7].

High impact information on Argiprestocin

  • (3) How does AVT/AVP influence behavior - by modulation of sensorimotor processes, motivational processes, or both [5]?
  • Although AVT/AVP behavioral functions and related anatomical features are increasingly well-known for individual species, ubiquitous species-specificity presents ever increasing challenges for identifying consistent structure-function patterns that are broadly meaningful [5].
  • 3. This study provides evidence for hormonal control of the Cl- secretion in sea bass gill respiratory cells in culture, involving AVT, prostaglandin (PGE2), and beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptors [8].
  • (c) Although the RPN lesions produced a slight but statistically significant REM sleep decrease, this did not prevent AVT from inducing its hypnogenic effects [9].
  • To determine the relationship between the raphe nuclei and the sleep-inducing pineal peptide arginine vasotocin (AVT), we investigated the hypnogenic effects of intraventricularly administered AVT in adult cats with electrolytic lesions performed either in the raphe dorsalis nucleus (RDN) or the raphe pontis nucleus (RPN) [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Argiprestocin


Biological context of Argiprestocin

  • In the present study, in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical methods were used to compare the ontogeny of sexually dimorphic AVT gene expression in the BnST of male and female chickens from day 12 of embryonic development (E12) until the onset of sexual maturation [13].
  • Since the areas that showed sex differences in AVT distribution have also been implicated in control of reproductive behaviors, they may form the neural substrates for the effects of AVT on sexually dimorphic behaviors in amphibians [14].
  • These data parallel previous descriptions of AVT immunoreactivity in these species, although the present methods showed a previously undescribed, seasonally variable AVP-lir cell group in the anterior tuberal hypothalamus, a vocally active site and a component of the ascending auditory pathway [15].
  • Finally, 1 min after oviposition, control values of 19.5 +/- 3.4 pmol AVT/1 (n = 9) were raised more than sevenfold to 142.9 +/- 12.5 pmol/l (n = 11) [2].
  • Manipulations of the AVT system shifted males within a single phenotype from the nonterritorial social status to the territorial social status and vice versa [7].

Anatomical context of Argiprestocin

  • The total amount of AVT released into the medium during 43 days of incubation is about 40 times greater than the amount contained in non-incubated pineal glands of the same age, strongly suggesting de novo synthesis of AVT [16].
  • A single injection of 1 pg synthetic arginine vasotocin (AVT) into the third ventricle of the mouse completely prevented the pituitary MSH increase which occurs seven days after pinealectomy or 24 h after exposure to constant light [17].
  • AVT also had no effect on fetal testis cells [18].
  • Comparison of the effects of two 'sleep' peptides, delta sleep-inducing peptide and arginine-vasotocin, on single neurons in the rat and rabbit brain stem [19].
  • AVT immunoreactivity is also located in several other vocally active regions, including the ventral tuberal nucleus, periaqueductal gray, and paraventricular regions of the isthmus and rostral hindbrain [20].

Associations of Argiprestocin with other chemical compounds

  • The chicken pineal also contained AVT (about 300 pg/gland) and lacked AVP and OT [21].
  • Double-label fluorescent histochemistry was used for IT and AVT (by using antibodies for MT, OT, and the mammalian AVT homologue, arginine vasopressin [AVP]) [15].
  • Fetal AVT infusion significantly obtunded the fetal osmolality increment induced by maternal mannitol alone [P less than 0.001, analysis of variance (ANOVA)] [22].
  • This supports the suggestion that whereas vasopressin and oxytocin are synthesized in the hypothalamic neurosecretory cells, AVT, on the contrary, appears to be synthesized by ependymal neurohypophysial cells in the developing human neurohypophysis [23].
  • Estradiol partially restored AVT levels in the amygdala of males [24].

Gene context of Argiprestocin

  • The AVP RIA can detect as little as 2 pg hormone and shows essentially no cross-reactivity with AVT or OT [21].
  • In the gymnophionan, cells containing AVT and NPY are distinct from AMi cells [25].
  • Maximum grooming scores resulted from a 0.1 microgram dose of AVT or a 0.5 microgram AVP dose [26].
  • In this paper, we also investigated the colocalization of nNOS with arginine-vasotocin (AVT) by means of immunolabeling of consecutive sections [27].
  • While AVP and OT had no effect, AVT induced: 1) an increase in the amount of active sleep (AS); 2) a decrease in the brain weight and the total brain lipids, and 3) a delay in the eyelids opening [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Argiprestocin


  1. Exogenous vasotocin alters aggression during agonistic exchanges in male Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae). Lema, S.C., Nevitt, G.A. Hormones and behavior. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of dehydration, haemorrhage and oviposition on serum concentrations of vasotocin, mesotocin and prolactin in the chicken. Nouwen, E.J., Decuypere, E., Kühn, E.R., Michels, H., Hall, T.R., Chadwick, A. J. Endocrinol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Oxytocin antagonist blocks the vasodepressor but not the vasopressor effect of neurohypophysial peptides in chickens. Robinzon, B., Koike, T.I., Marks, P.A. Peptides (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Preoptic AVT immunoreactive neurons of a teleost fish with alternative reproductive tactics. Foran, C.M., Bass, A.H. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Social behavior functions and related anatomical characteristics of vasotocin/vasopressin systems in vertebrates. Goodson, J.L., Bass, A.H. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of vasotocin on locomotor activity in bullfrogs varies with developmental stage and sex. Boyd, S.K. Hormones and behavior. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Manipulations of the AVT system shift social status and related courtship and aggressive behavior in the bluehead wrasse. Semsar, K., Kandel, F.L., Godwin, J. Hormones and behavior. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of Cl- secretion in seawater fish (Dicentrarchus labrax) gill respiratory cells in primary culture. Avella, M., Part, P., Ehrenfeld, J. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Sleep in the cat: raphe dorsalis and vasotocin. Goldstein, R., Psatta, D. Sleep. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Neurohypophysial hormonal control of kidney function in the Furopean eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) adapted to sea-water or fresh water. Babiker, M.M., Rankin, J.C. J. Endocrinol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Fluoxetine-treated male wrasses exhibit low AVT expression. Semsar, K., Perreault, H.A., Godwin, J. Brain Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Neurohypophysial hormones and steroidogenesis in the interrenals of Xenopus laevis. Kloas, W., Hanke, W. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Development of sexually dimorphic vasotocinergic system in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis in chickens. Jurkevich, A., Barth, S.W., Kuenzel, W.J., Köhler, A., Grossmann, R. J. Comp. Neurol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Sexual dimorphism in the vasotocin system of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). Boyd, S.K., Tyler, C.J., De Vries, G.J. J. Comp. Neurol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Putative isotocin distributions in sonic fish: relation to vasotocin and vocal-acoustic circuitry. Goodson, J.L., Evans, A.K., Bass, A.H. J. Comp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Chromatographic evidence for vasotocin biosynthesis by cultured pineal ependymal cells from rat fetuses. Pavel, S., Goldstein, R., Ghinea, E., Calb, M. Endocrinology (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Reversal by vasotocin of pinealectomy and constant light effects on the pituitary melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) content in the mouse. Pavel, S., Gheorghiu, C., Calb, M., Petrescu, M. Endocrinology (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. Development of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein in the rat testis. Warren, D.W. Biol. Reprod. (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Comparison of the effects of two 'sleep' peptides, delta sleep-inducing peptide and arginine-vasotocin, on single neurons in the rat and rabbit brain stem. Normanton, J.R., Gent, J.P. Neuroscience (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Vasotocin innervation and modulation of vocal-acoustic circuitry in the teleost Porichthys notatus. Goodson, J.L., Bass, A.H. J. Comp. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Radioimmunologic detection and measurement of nonapeptides in the pineal gland. Fernstrom, J.D., Fisher, L.A., Cusack, B.M., Gillis, M.A. Endocrinology (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Cortisol facilitates ovine fetal/maternal water transfer. Leake, R.D., Stegner, H., Palmer, S.M., Oakes, G.K., Fisher, D.A. Pediatr. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. Vasotocin biosynthesis by neurohypophysial cells from human fetuses. Evidence for its ependymal origin. Pavel, S. Neuroendocrinology (1975) [Pubmed]
  24. Gonadal steroid modulation of vasotocin concentrations in the bullfrog brain. Boyd, S.K. Neuroendocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Comparative analysis of adrenomedullin-like immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus of amphibians. Muñoz, M., López, J.M., Sánchez-Camacho, C., Moreno, N., Crespo, M., González, A. Microsc. Res. Tech. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. A comparison of grooming behavior potencies of neurohypophyseal nonapeptides. Caldwell, J.D., Drago, F., Prange, A.J., Pedersen, C.A. Regul. Pept. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of nitric oxide synthase in the preoptic-hypothalamo-hypophyseal system of the teleost Oreochromis niloticus. Bordieri, L., Persichini, T., Venturini, G., Cioni, C. Brain Behav. Evol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Vasotocin involvement in the maturation of the rat brain. Goldstein, R. Endocrinologie. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Identification and localization of neurohypophysial peptides in the brain of a caecilian amphibian, Typhlonectes natans (Amphibia: Gymnophiona). Hilscher-Conklin, C., Conlon, J.M., Boyd, S.K. J. Comp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Characterization of vasopressin and oxytocin immunoreactivity in the sheep and rat pineal gland: absence of vasotocin and detection of a vasopressin-like peptide. Liu, B., Burbach, J.P. Peptides (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Intracerebroventricular administration of angiotensin II increases heart rate in the conscious trout. Le Mevel, J.C., Pamantung, T.F., Mabin, D., Vaudry, H. Brain Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
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