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Gene Review

PCNA  -  proliferating cell nuclear antigen

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of PCNA

  • PCNA appeared not only in the supporting cells, as indicated in previous studies, but also in the ganglion cells, suggesting ganglion cell involvement in the process of regeneration [1].
  • Resection type, proliferation markers (Ki67 and PCNA) and in vitro confrontation patterns were significant (p<0.05) factors in predicting the postsurgical evolution of meningiomas [2].

High impact information on PCNA


Biological context of PCNA

  • Co-localization of chicken DNA topoisomerase IIalpha, but not beta, with sites of DNA replication and possible involvement of a C-terminal region of alpha through its binding to PCNA [7].
  • Indeed, the monoubiquitination-defective Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) mutant exhibits impaired recombination-independent ICL repair as well as drastically reduced mutation rate, indicating that the PCNA switch is utilized to enable lesion bypass during DNA repair synthesis [8].
  • Moreover, challenge of ovarian granulosa cells with ghrelin 1-18 was able to induce markers of proliferation (i.e. expression of both PCNA and cyclin), and to modulate markers of apoptosis (i.e. decreased expression of caspase-3, bax, bcl-2 and TUNEL-positive cells) [9].
  • The frequency of PCNA-positive cells started to increase from 7 d after cessation of lay (3 d after refeeding), and a significantly higher frequency of positive cells was observed in both lobes of molting hens 13 d after cessation of lay when compared to control hens, molting hens 2 d after cessation of egg lay, and second cycle laying hens [10].
  • The cell number and total DNA were significantly larger and the level of LDH and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was elevated in Ca/2 compared to FCa [11].

Anatomical context of PCNA


Associations of PCNA with chemical compounds


Other interactions of PCNA

  • Dual immunohistochemical staining results showed that almost all the Lim-3(+)cells expressed Islet-1 at every stage examined, and about 90% of Islet-1(+)cells were proliferating cell nuclear antigen negative [19].
  • Twelve hours to 1 day after exposure, mitotic cells, binucleate cells and PCNA-positive supporting cells were observed, and b-FGF immunoreactivity was shown in the supporting cells and glial cells near the habenula perforata [20].
  • Immunodetection of PCNA, a marker of cell proliferation, revealed a much more widespread distribution of mitotic cells as compared to CHox-cad-expressing cells [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PCNA


  1. Hair cell regeneration in the chick basilar papilla after exposure to wide-band noise: evidence for ganglion cell involvement. Sliwinska-Kowalska, M., Rzadzinska, A., Jedlinska, U., Rajkowska, E. Hear. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Can recurrence of meningiomas be predicted? Kalala, J.P., Benoit, D., De Ridder, L. Anticancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Human DNA-(cytosine-5) methyltransferase-PCNA complex as a target for p21WAF1. Chuang, L.S., Ian, H.I., Koh, T.W., Ng, H.H., Xu, G., Li, B.F. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Cytoplasmic p21(Cip1/WAF1) regulates neurite remodeling by inhibiting Rho-kinase activity. Tanaka, H., Yamashita, T., Asada, M., Mizutani, S., Yoshikawa, H., Tohyama, M. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Forced expression of the homeodomain protein Gax inhibits cardiomyocyte proliferation and perturbs heart morphogenesis. Fisher, S.A., Siwik, E., Branellec, D., Walsh, K., Watanabe, M. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Cell proliferation in the gastrulating chick embryo: a study using BrdU incorporation and PCNA localization. Sanders, E.J., Varedi, M., French, A.S. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Co-localization of chicken DNA topoisomerase IIalpha, but not beta, with sites of DNA replication and possible involvement of a C-terminal region of alpha through its binding to PCNA. Niimi, A., Suka, N., Harata, M., Kikuchi, A., Mizuno, S. Chromosoma (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. REV3 and REV1 play major roles in recombination-independent repair of DNA interstrand cross-links mediated by monoubiquitinated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Shen, X., Jun, S., O'Neal, L.E., Sonoda, E., Bemark, M., Sale, J.E., Li, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Novel expression and functional role of ghrelin in chicken ovary. Sirotkin, A.V., Grossmann, R., María-Peon, M.T., Roa, J., Tena-Sempere, M., Klein, S. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Changes in the population of proliferating cells in chicken anterior pituitary during induced molting: an immunocytochemical analysis for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Yoshimura, Y., Heryanto, B., Tamura, T. Poult. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Major risk factors for atherosclerosis are manifested in experimental Ca-deficiency. Koide, M., Harayama, H., Iio, A., Obata, K., Matsuda, N., Ono, T., Yokota, M., Tuan, R.S. Hypertens. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Estrogenic and antioxidant effects of a phytoestrogen daidzein on ovarian germ cells in embryonic chickens. Liu, H., Zhang, C., Zeng, W. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Perchloric acid-soluble protein regulates cell proliferation and differentiation in the spinal cord of chick embryos. Himeno, E., Yamazaki, K., Kanouchi, H., Matsumoto, M., Sugimoto, Y., Oka, T. FEBS Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. The effect of parathion on mouse testicular and epididymal development cultured in chicken allantochorion. Rojas, M., Bustos-Obregón, E., Martínez-García, F., Contreras, H., Regadera, J. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in migrating retinal pigment epithelial cells during wound healing in organ culture. Hergott, G.J., Kalnins, V.I. Exp. Cell Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of a proliferating marginal zone of retinal progenitors in postnatal chickens. Fischer, A.J., Reh, T.A. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. PCNA in situ hybridization: a novel and reliable tool for detection of dynamic changes in proliferative activity. Köhler, T., Pröls, F., Brand-Saberi, B. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Cytokinetics of secondary neurulation in chick embryos: Hamburger and Hamilton stages 16-45. Yang, H.J., Wang, K.C., Chi, J.G., Lee, M.S., Lee, Y.J., Kim, S.K., Lee, C.S., Cho, B.K. Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. LIM homeodomain proteins Islet-1 and Lim-3 expressions in the developing pineal gland of chick embryo by immunohistochemistry. Zhang, J.H., Liu, J.L., Wu, Y.J., Cui, S. J. Pineal Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Hair cell regeneration in the chick inner ear following acoustic trauma: ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies. Umemoto, M., Sakagami, M., Fukazawa, K., Ashida, K., Kubo, T., Senda, T., Yoneda, Y. Cell Tissue Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. A caudal-type homeobox gene activity associated with the development and regeneration of the liver. Doll, U., Niessing, J. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Cell kinetics of surgically induced spinal open neural tube defect in chick embryos. Park, I.S., Cho, B.K., Chi, J.G., Wang, K.C. Neurosci. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Cytokinetic pattern in the thoracic spinal cord of chick embryos (incubation day 5-13) using PCNA staining and TUNEL method. Wang, K.C., Park, I.S., Chi, J.G., Lee, M.S., Lee, Y.J., Cho, B.K. J. Korean Med. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Cell proliferation in the process of oviducal tissue remodeling during induced molting in hens. Heryanto, B., Yoshimura, Y., Tamura, T. Poult. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
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