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Gene Review

IFT122  -  intraflagellar transport 122 homolog...

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of IFT122

  • Vertebrate rhodopsin couples to the Gi/o, pertussis toxin-sensitive pathway to allow modulation of G protein-gated inward rectifying potassium channels and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels [1].
  • Direct evidence is not available that (1) rhodopsin-like photopigment exists in the chicken pineal and that (2) the visual pigment is responsible for the light sensitivity of the gland [2].

High impact information on IFT122

  • The presence of rhodopsin-like photoreceptive pigment, transducin-like immunoreaction, and cyclic GMP-dependent cation-channel activity in the avian pinealocytes suggests that there is a similarity between retinal rod cells and pinealocytes in the phototransduction pathway [3].
  • Rhodopsin-like photosensitivity of isolated chicken pineal gland [4].
  • The level of rhodopsin continues to rise as the rod outer segment develops [5].
  • It was found that the appearance of rhodopsin in significant levels preceded outer segment formation by at least 2 days, thus implying that rhodopsin is synthesized in the receptor cell inner segment and translocated to the outer limb when disk membrane biogenesis occurs [5].
  • Correlation of rhodopsin biogenesis with ultrastructural morphogenesis in the chick retina [5].

Biological context of IFT122


Anatomical context of IFT122


Associations of IFT122 with chemical compounds

  • The data indicate that in vivo light plays a major role in triggering rhodopsin-bound 11-cis-retinal production within 2-4 hr after darkness onset; this change likely serves as the signal for the subsequent formation of the hormonal product of the pineal gland, melatonin [14].
  • With respect to their content of rhodopsin, IRBP, retinyl palmitate/stearate and unesterified retinol, (both 11-cis and all-trans isomers) no significant difference could be demonstrated between the eyes of rd and carrier chickens (3 days and 28 days post-hatching) [15].
  • If a single rhodopsin-like photopigment mediates both effects of light, then vitamin A depletion and retinoid addition should affect both responses in parallel, although not proportionately [16].
  • The chromophore of chloride-depleted iodopsin was easily transferred to scotopsin in the extract, resulting in formation of rhodopsin [17].
  • Although chicken green was contaminated with a small amount of rhodopsin having a similar spectral shape, the maximum of its difference spectrum was located at 508 nm by taking advantage of the difference in susceptibility against hydroxylamine between these pigments [18].

Regulatory relationships of IFT122

  • RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis, however, showed that rhodopsin mRNA was undetectable in both control and CNTF-treated cultures but that CNTF induced significant increases in mRNA levels for the green cone pigment [19].

Other interactions of IFT122


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IFT122

  • Isolation and sequence determination of the chicken rhodopsin gene [24].
  • The bZIP transcription factor Nrl stimulates rhodopsin promoter activity in primary retinal cell cultures [6].
  • The cultures were analyzed by immunocytochemistry with the monoclonal antibody Rho4D2, which recognizes chicken rhodopsin and green cone pigment, and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot analysis to investigate visual pigment expression at the mRNA level [19].
  • Here we determined the tissue and serum dependence of the expression of all photopigments in the chick by a series of distinct retinal cell cultures, analyzed by RT-PCR using specific primers for all four opsins and rhodopsin followed by quantitative scanning of the respective gel bands [20].
  • By the more sensitive procedure of radioimmunoassay (RIA), rhodopsin was detected as early as day 12 (stage 37), but was undetectable in the 8 day old embryo [25].


  1. Fast noninvasive activation and inhibition of neural and network activity by vertebrate rhodopsin and green algae channelrhodopsin. Li, X., Gutierrez, D.V., Hanson, M.G., Han, J., Mark, M.D., Chiel, H., Hegemann, P., Landmesser, L.T., Herlitze, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of 11-cis-retinal and demonstration of its light-induced isomerization in the chicken pineal gland. Sun, J.H., Reiter, R.J., Mata, N.L., Tsin, A.T. Neurosci. Lett. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Pinopsin is a chicken pineal photoreceptive molecule. Okano, T., Yoshizawa, T., Fukada, Y. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Rhodopsin-like photosensitivity of isolated chicken pineal gland. Deguchi, T. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Correlation of rhodopsin biogenesis with ultrastructural morphogenesis in the chick retina. Mason, W.T., Bighouse, K.J. J. Cell Biol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. The bZIP transcription factor Nrl stimulates rhodopsin promoter activity in primary retinal cell cultures. Kumar, R., Chen, S., Scheurer, D., Wang, Q.L., Duh, E., Sung, C.H., Rehemtulla, A., Swaroop, A., Adler, R., Zack, D.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of the chicken rhodopsin promoter: identification of retina-specific and glass-like protein binding domains. Sheshberadaran, H., Takahashi, J.S. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Is chicken green-sensitive cone visual pigment a rhodopsin-like pigment? A comparative study of the molecular properties between chicken green and rhodopsin. Shichida, Y., Imai, H., Imamoto, Y., Fukada, Y., Yoshizawa, T. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Cone visual pigments are present in gecko rod cells. Kojima, D., Okano, T., Fukada, Y., Shichida, Y., Yoshizawa, T., Ebrey, T.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Single amino acid residue as a functional determinant of rod and cone visual pigments. Imai, H., Kojima, D., Oura, T., Tachibanaki, S., Terakita, A., Shichida, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 increases chick photoreceptor outer segment initiation. Sehgal, R., Andres, D.J., Adler, R., Belecky-Adams, T.L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Difference in molecular properties between chicken green and rhodopsin as related to the functional difference between cone and rod photoreceptor cells. Imai, H., Imamoto, Y., Yoshizawa, T., Shichida, Y. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Retinoid cycles in the cone-dominated chicken retina. Trevino, S.G., Villazana-Espinoza, E.T., Muniz, A., Tsin, A.T. J. Exp. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Phototransduction-related circadian changes in indoleamine metabolism in the chick pineal gland in vivo. Sun, J.H., Reiter, R.J., Hattori, A., Yaga, K., Herbert, D.C., Tsin, A.T. J. Pineal Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Rhodopsin, vitamin A, and interstitial retinol-binding protein in the rd chicken. Bridges, C.D., Alvarez, R.A., Fong, S.L., Liou, G.I., Ulshafer, R.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Photoendocrine transduction in cultured chick pineal cells: IV. What do vitamin A depletion and retinaldehyde addition do to the effects of light on the melatonin rhythm? Zatz, M. J. Neurochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of chloride on chicken iodopsin and the chromophore transfer reactions from iodopsin to scotopsin and B-photopsin. Shichida, Y., Kato, T., Sasayama, S., Fukada, Y., Yoshizawa, T. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Purification of cone visual pigments from chicken retina. Okano, T., Fukada, Y., Artamonov, I.D., Yoshizawa, T. Biochemistry (1989) [Pubmed]
  19. Green cone opsin and rhodopsin regulation by CNTF and staurosporine in cultured chick photoreceptors. Xie, H.Q., Adler, R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Rhodopsin, violet and blue opsin expressions in the chick are highly dependent on tissue and serum conditions. Jacob, V., Rothermel, A., Wolf, P., Layer, P.G. Cells Tissues Organs (Print) (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Phosphorylation of iodopsin, chicken red-sensitive cone visual pigment. Fukada, Y., Kokame, K., Okano, T., Shichida, Y., Yoshizawa, T., McDowell, J.H., Hargrave, P.A., Palczewski, K. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Opsin photoisomerases in the chick retina and pineal gland: characterization, localization, and circadian regulation. Bailey, M.J., Cassone, V.M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Differential regulation of melatonin synthesis genes and phototransduction genes in embryonic chicken retina and cultured retinal precursor cells. Cailleau, V., Bernard, M., Morin, F., Guerlotte, J., Voisin, P. Mol. Vis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Isolation and sequence determination of the chicken rhodopsin gene. Takao, M., Yasui, A., Tokunaga, F. Vision Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Biogenesis and content of rhodopsin in the retina of the chick during development. Plantner, J.J., Lentrichia, B.B., Kean, E.L. Curr. Eye Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
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