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Gene Review

LPL  -  lipoprotein lipase

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of LPL

  • These results suggested that LPL determined not only hydrolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins but also lipolytic conversion, and that overexpression of LPL acted to protect against diet-induced hypertriglyceridemia as well as hypercholesterolemia [1].
  • The higher LPL activity in fat birds resulted mainly from cell hyperplasia, rather than from a greater intrinsic activity of adipocytes [2].
  • The increase in liver/body weight ratio (48%) and the decreased LPL activity (28%) were significant only in females at 10 microg TCDD/kg [3].
  • Our data showed that this negative element inhibited transcription even when placed at an upstream location (-666), but failed to function in the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter, indicating that it acted in conjunction with other element(s) in the chicken LPL gene to inhibit transcription [4].
  • Results also show that obesity in hypothyroid birds cannot be explained by increases in de novo lipogenesis, but probably relates to changes in LPL activity [5].

High impact information on LPL


Biological context of LPL


Anatomical context of LPL

  • After adipocytes were labeled with Na2[35SO4], immunoadsorbed with immobilized antilipoprotein lipase, and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorography, a labeled band was identified at 59,700 daltons, the molecular mass of chicken lipoprotein lipase (LPL) [8].
  • The presence of LPL in chicken follicular granulosa cells was demonstrated by immunoblotting, and LPL activity with the usual in vitro characteristics could be measured in cultured granulosa cell extracts [12].
  • Cotransfection of COUP-TF expression constructs in the renal epithelial 293T cell line significantly increased transcription from the LPL promoter in synergy with PPARgamma2/RXRalpha heterodimers [13].
  • ApoVLDL-II inhibited LPL activity in these extracts as well as in the post-heparin medium of rat cardiac myocytes [12].
  • The expression of COUP-TF was detected by Western and Northern blots in a preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cell model during periods corresponding to increased LPL transcription [13].

Associations of LPL with chemical compounds

  • Adipocytes cultured with Trans35S-label and tunicamycin produced an LPL species of 52,000 daltons, but tunicamycin abolished the incorporation of 35SO4 into LPL [8].
  • Occurrence of sulfate in an asparagine-linked complex oligosaccharide of chicken adipose lipoprotein lipase [8].
  • Based on the cDNA sequence and on N-terminal sequence analysis of the purified enzyme, chicken adipose lipoprotein lipase is a mature protein of 465 amino acids with a signal peptide of 19 or 25 amino acids, depending on which of two methionine residues is used for translation initiation [10].
  • In conclusion, the region of avian LPL between Arg281 and Arg284 does appear to be involved in heparin-binding; however, additional regions must be involved since binding was not completely abolished [7].
  • In addition, specific activity of the cell-associated and secreted LPL is correlated to affinity of the enzyme for heparan sulfate chains [7].

Enzymatic interactions of LPL


Regulatory relationships of LPL


Other interactions of LPL


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LPL


  1. Overexpression of human lipoprotein lipase in transgenic mice. Resistance to diet-induced hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Shimada, M., Shimano, H., Gotoda, T., Yamamoto, K., Kawamura, M., Inaba, T., Yazaki, Y., Yamada, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Evidence of enhanced storage capacity in adipose tissue of genetically fat chickens. Hermier, D., Quignard-Boulangé, A., Dugail, I., Guy, G., Salichon, M.R., Brigant, L., Ardouin, B., Leclercq, B. J. Nutr. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Biochemical and toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in immature male and female chickens. El-Sabeawy, F., Enan, E., Lasley, B. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Toxicol. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of a silencing element in the chicken lipoprotein lipase gene promoter: characterization of the silencer-binding protein and delineation of its target nucleotide sequence. Zhang, W., Bensadoun, A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Carry over effects of dietary crude protein and methimazole in broiler chickens. Rosebrough, R.W. Growth, development, and aging : GDA. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Purification and characterization of adipocyte heparan sulfate proteoglycans with affinity for lipoprotein lipase. Misra, K.B., Kim, K.C., Cho, S., Low, M.G., Bensadoun, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Site-directed mutagenesis of a putative heparin binding domain of avian lipoprotein lipase. Berryman, D.E., Bensadoun, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Occurrence of sulfate in an asparagine-linked complex oligosaccharide of chicken adipose lipoprotein lipase. Hoogewerf, A.J., Bensadoun, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. The structure and complete nucleotide sequence of the avian lipoprotein lipase gene. Cooper, D.A., Lu, S.C., Viswanath, R., Freiman, R.N., Bensadoun, A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Avian adipose lipoprotein lipase: cDNA sequence and reciprocal regulation of mRNA levels in adipose and heart. Cooper, D.A., Stein, J.C., Strieleman, P.J., Bensadoun, A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Lipoprotein metabolism and fattening in poultry. Hermier, D. J. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Apolipoprotein VLDL-II inhibits lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the laying hen. Schneider, W.J., Carroll, R., Severson, D.L., Nimpf, J. J. Lipid Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. A corepressor and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcriptional factor proteins modulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2/retinoid X receptor alpha-activated transcription from the murine lipoprotein lipase promoter. Robinson, C.E., Wu, X., Nawaz, Z., Onãte, S.A., Gimble, J.M. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Lipoprotein lipase of ovarian follicles in the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus) (38537). Benson, J.D., Bensadoun, A., Cohen, D. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of an anti-lipoprotein lipase serum on plasma triglyceride removal. Kompiang, I.P., Bensadoun, A., Yang, M.W. J. Lipid Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Does vitellogenin inhibit lipoprotein lipase in the laying hen? Griffin, H. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Heparin decreases the degradation rate of lipoprotein lipase in adipocytes. Cupp, M., Bensadoun, A., Melford, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of transforming growth factor-alpha on chicken adipocyte precursor cells in vitro. Butterwith, S.C., Peddie, C.D., Goddard, C. J. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular effects of nicarbazin on avian reproduction. Yoder, C.A., Graham, J.K., Miller, L.A. Poult. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Plasma lipoprotein changes resulting from immunologically blocked lipolysis. Behr, S.R., Patsch, J.R., Forte, T., Bensadoun, A. J. Lipid Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Lipoprotein hydrolysis and fat accumulation in chicken adipose tissues are reduced by chronic administration of lipoprotein lipase monoclonal antibodies. Sato, K., Akiba, Y., Chida, Y., Takahashi, K. Poult. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Development and evaluation of an ELISA method for the determination of lipoprotein lipase mass concentration--comparison with a commercial, one-step enzyme immunoassay. Antikainen, M., Suurinkeroinen, L., Jauhiainen, M., Ehnholm, C., Taskinen, M.R. European journal of clinical chemistry and clinical biochemistry : journal of the Forum of European Clinical Chemistry Societies. (1996) [Pubmed]
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