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Gene Review

PRL  -  prolactin

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of PRL


Psychiatry related information on PRL


High impact information on PRL


Chemical compound and disease context of PRL


Biological context of PRL


Anatomical context of PRL

  • In support of this, stimulation of the turkey pituitary gland with VIP on ED24 resulted in a 4- and 3-fold increase in PRL and PRLR, respectively [19].
  • Similarly, circulating levels of PRL also increased during this interval and were highly correlated with levels of the PRLR mRNA in both the pituitary gland and hypothalamus [19].
  • The presence of truncated [(+) or (-)box 1] cPRLR transcripts in the sexually mature chicken testis suggests a complex mechanism of PRL action on gonadal function [20].
  • PRL receptors in lymphocytes participate in the transduction of its regulatory signal into the intracellular enzymatic machinery including that of the nucleus, leading to the expression of some genes and to the synthesis of new proteins [2].
  • In addition, data indicate that GH and PRL cells differentiate from a common stem cell [21].

Associations of PRL with chemical compounds

  • Induction of a luciferase reporter driven by the PRL promoter was also delayed until 3 d of CORT treatment [18].
  • Moreover, the results of this study also indicate that a drug that can selectively stimulate dopamine D2 receptors can also regulate PRL secretion and PRL mRNA in turkey pituitary cells in culture [22].
  • In addition, a mammalian GnRH analog stimulated the release of PRL from the pituitary RPD incubated in either iso-osmotic (320 mosmol/l) or hyperosmotic (355 mosmol/l) medium, the latter normally inhibiting PRL release [23].
  • In the second breeding cycle, changes in PRL and LH concentrations were similar to those observed in the first breeding cycle except that even greater increases in plasma LH and oestradiol concentrations were observed one week after hatching when the chicks were removed [24].
  • Plasma concentrations of arginine vasotocin (AVT), prolactin (PRL), aldosterone (ALDO) and corticosterone (CS) were determined by radioimmunoassay [3].

Regulatory relationships of PRL


Other interactions of PRL

  • Consistent with cellular ontogeny, TSHbeta mRNA increased steadily between e10 and e17, GH mRNA increased between e12 and e17, and PRL mRNA did not increase until e17 [30].
  • A similar sequence for the expression of Pit-1 relative to GH and PRL during embryonic/fetal development has been reported for rodents [31].
  • Northern blotting studies showed that the pituitary gland contains a single 860 base(s) mature PRL mRNA transcript irrespective of physiological state or VIP manipulation [32].
  • This study provides the first immunocytochemical evidences for: (i) The presence of GH, SM-C/IGF-1, PRL and MIS bindings on chick embryonic tissues, and further supports their potential role as growth mediators during embryonic development [33].
  • The effect of exogenous prolactin (PRL) on the weight and lipid content of the liver and abdominal adipose tissue as well as on the concentrations of total lipids and lipoprotein fractions (portomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL) in plasma was investigated in chickens [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PRL

  • Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of putative chicken prolactin cDNA [17].
  • In situ hybridization showed PRL mRNA to be localized in the cephalic lobe of the anterior pituitary gland in which most PRL cells, identified immunocytochemically, were found [32].
  • Anterior pituitaries were dissociated into individual cells with trypsin, and the resulting cells were then subjected to reverse hemolytic plaque assays for PRL [35].
  • To gain a better understanding of the physiological significance of the three different tLH-R isoforms, total RNA from the theca layer through follicular development after prolactin (PRL) treatment was analyzed by RT-PCR [36].
  • Furthermore, previous studies using immunocytochemistry found that PRL- and GH-containing cells were located primarily in the cephalic (Cp) and caudal (Cd) lobes, respectively, of the anterior pituitary [21].


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  2. Prolactin as an immunoregulatory hormone in mammals and birds. Skwarło-Sońta, K. Immunol. Lett. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Plasma levels of arginine vasotocin, prolactin, aldosterone and corticosterone during prolonged dehydration in the domestic fowl: effect of dietary NaCl. Arnason, S.S., Rice, G.E., Chadwick, A., Skadhauge, E. J. Comp. Physiol. B, Biochem. Syst. Environ. Physiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Expression of biologically active recombinant-derived chicken prolactin in Escherichia coli. Hanks, M.C., Talbot, R.T., Sang, H.M. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Antagonism of serum tri-iodothyronine changes after injections of prolactin in the domestic fowl before and after hatching. Kühn, E.R., Decuypere, E., Hemschoote, K., Berghman, L., Paulussen, J. J. Endocrinol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparison of mammalian prolactin-releasing peptide and Carassius RFamide for feeding behavior and prolactin secretion in chicks. Tachibana, T., Tsukada, A., Fujimoto, M., Takahashi, H., Ohkubo, T., Boswell, T., Furuse, M. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Effect of dehydration, haemorrhage and oviposition on serum concentrations of vasotocin, mesotocin and prolactin in the chicken. Nouwen, E.J., Decuypere, E., Kühn, E.R., Michels, H., Hall, T.R., Chadwick, A. J. Endocrinol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. The possible role of prolactin in the regulation of nesting behaviour and the secretion of luteinizing hormone in broody bantams. Lea, R.W., Dods, A.S., Sharp, P.J., Chadwick, A. J. Endocrinol. (1981) [Pubmed]
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  10. Prolactin and early T-cell development in embryonic chicken. Moreno, J., Vicente, A., Heijnen, I., Zapata, A.G. Immunol. Today (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Nascent chicken ovalbumin contains the functional equivalent of a signal sequence. Lingappa, V.R., Shields, D., Woo, S.L., Blobel, G. J. Cell Biol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Induction of vitellogenin in primary monolayer cultures of cockerel hepatocytes. Boehm, K.D., Hood, R.L., Ilan, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Primary structure of chicken pituitary prolactin deduced from the cDNA sequence. Conserved and specific amino acid residues in the domains of the prolactins. Watahiki, M., Tanaka, M., Masuda, N., Sugisaki, K., Yamamoto, M., Yamakawa, M., Nagai, J., Nakashima, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Changes in plasma levels of prolactin and estradiol, nutrient intake, and time spent nesting during the incubation phase of broodiness in the Chabo hen (Japanese bantam). Zadworny, D., Shimada, K., Ishida, H., Sumi, C., Sato, K. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Precocious puberty in tamoxifen-treated cockerels: hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-I and plasma luteinising hormone, prolactin, growth hormone and testosterone. Rozenboim, I., Snapir, N., Arnon, E., Ben Aryeh, R., Burke, W.H., Sharp, P.J., Koch, Y., Robinzon, B. Br. Poult. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Association of polymorphisms in the promoter region of chicken prolactin with egg production. Cui, J.X., Du, H.L., Liang, Y., Deng, X.M., Li, N., Zhang, X.Q. Poult. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of putative chicken prolactin cDNA. Hanks, M.C., Alonzi, J.A., Sharp, P.J., Sang, H.M. J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Glucocorticoid induction of lactotrophs and prolactin gene expression in chicken embryonic pituitary cells: a delayed response relative to stimulated growth hormone production. Fu, X., Porter, T.E. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Development of a real-time (Q) PCR assay to measure variation in expression of prolactin receptor mRNA in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland during late embryogenesis in turkeys and chickens. Leclerc, B., Zadworny, D., B??d??carrats, G., Kuhnlein, U. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of unique truncated prolactin receptor transcripts, corresponding to the intracellular domain, in the testis of the sexually mature chicken. Mao, J.N., Burnside, J., Li, L., Tang, J., Davolos, C., Cogburn, L.A. Endocrinology (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Uneven regional distributions of prolactin- and growth hormone-secreting cells and sexually dimorphic proportions of prolactin secretors in the adenohypophysis of adult chickens. Lopez, M.E., Hargis, B.M., Dean, C.E., Porter, T.E. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates prolactin mRNA expression in turkey pituitary cells: effects of dopaminergic drugs. Xu, M., Proudman, J.A., Pitts, G.R., Wong, E.A., Foster, D.N., el Halawani, M.E. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Evidence that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) functions as a prolactin-releasing factor in a teleost fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) and primary structures for three native GnRH molecules. Weber, G.M., Powell, J.F., Park, M., Fischer, W.H., Craig, A.G., Rivier, J.E., Nanakorn, U., Parhar, I.S., Ngamvongchon, S., Grau, E.G., Sherwood, N.M. J. Endocrinol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of removal of chicks from hens on concentrations of prolactin, luteinizing hormone and oestradiol in plasma of brooding Gifujidori hens. Kuwayama, T., Shimada, K., Saito, N., Ohkubo, T., Sato, K., Wada, M., Ichinoe, K. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Protein kinase-C mediates chicken vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulated prolactin secretion and gene expression in turkey primary pituitary cells. Sun, S., el Halawani, M.E. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Mechanisms of release of prolactin from fowl anterior pituitary glands incubated in vitro: effects of calcium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Hall, T.R., Harvey, S., Chadwick, A. J. Endocrinol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Influence of fasting, glucose and insulin on the levels of growth hormone and prolactin in the plasma of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). Harvey, S., Scanes, C.G., Chadwick, A., Bolton, N.J. J. Endocrinol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Relationship between prolactin receptor mRNA in the anterior pituitary gland and hypothalamus and reproductive state in male and female bantams (Gallus domesticus). Ohkubo, T., Tanaka, M., Nakashima, K., Sharp, P.J. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. In vitro stimulation of chicken pituitary growth hormone and prolactin secretion by chicken hypothalamic extract. Harvey, S., Scanes, C.G., Chadwick, A., Bolton, N.J. Experientia (1979) [Pubmed]
  30. Gene expression profiling during cellular differentiation in the embryonic pituitary gland using cDNA microarrays. Ellestad, L.E., Carre, W., Muchow, M., Jenkins, S.A., Wang, X., Cogburn, L.A., Porter, T.E. Physiol. Genomics (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Complementary DNA cloning and ontogenic expression of pituitary-specific transcription factor of chickens (Gallus domesticus) from the pituitary gland. Van As, P., Buys, N., Onagbesan, O.M., Decuypere, E. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Pituitary prolactin messenger ribonucleic acid levels in incubating and laying hens: effects of manipulating plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Talbot, R.T., Hanks, M.C., Sterling, R.J., Sang, H.M., Sharp, P.J. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Immunocytochemical demonstration of the binding of growth-related polypeptide hormones on chick embryonic tissues. Wang, J.J. Histochemistry (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Lipid metabolism indices and plasma corticosterone concentration in chickens treated with prolactin at different time points. Sotowska-Brochocka, J., Skwarło-Sońta, K., Rosłowska-Huszcz, D., Pawłowska-Wojewódka, E., Sidorkiewicz, E. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. Cellular basis for elevated prolactin secretion during incubation behavior in Bantam chickens: analysis by reverse hemolytic plaque assay. Lopez, M.E., Gregory, C.C., Porter, T.E. Biol. Reprod. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Three different turkey luteinizing hormone receptor (tLH-R) isoforms II: characterization of differentially regulated tLH-R messenger ribonucleic acid isoforms in the ovary. You, S., Kim, H., El Halawani, M.E., Foster, D.N. Biol. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
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