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Gene Review

NPY  -  neuropeptide Y

Ovis aries

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Disease relevance of NPY


Psychiatry related information on NPY


High impact information on NPY

  • Studies were performed to determine the effects of intracerebroventricular norepinephrine (NE) or neuropeptide Y (NPY) on the ovine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis [5].
  • When added to cultured ovine anterior pituitary cells, NPY neither increased basal ACTH release nor augmented CRF- or AVP-induced ACTH release [5].
  • Glucose infusion increased mRNA expression for POMC, but not for the anorectic neuropeptide CART, or the orexigenic neuropeptides NPY and AGRP, in the arcuate nucleus of the fetal hypothalamus [6].
  • In contrast, CGRP antagonism markedly diminished the femoral vasoconstrictor and glycaemic responses to hypoxaemia, and attenuated the increases in haemoglobin, catecholamines and NPY [4].
  • The appearance of NPY in GHRH cells of lean animals may be a mechanism for regulation of increasing GH secretion with reduced adiposity [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of NPY


Biological context of NPY

  • Levels of gene expression of NPY and MCH were higher in THIN ewes [11].
  • The appetite stimulators, NPY and MCH, appear to be involved in the metabolic response to altered adiposity, whereas ENK in the periventricular region may be linked to the secretion of GH and possibly LH [11].
  • Both, percent area and the optical density of NPY immunostaining measured in this area were higher (P < 0.01) in the preovulatory than in the follicular phase [12].
  • Plasma concentrations of neuropeptide Y (NPY) were measured in pregnant ewes and their fetuses under basal conditions and in response to acute hypoxemia during late gestation [2].
  • High levels of NPY expression during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle may be caused by progesterone [13].

Anatomical context of NPY

  • In the study reported here, we tested the hypothesis that long-term food restriction suppresses tonic release of LH as a result of 1) an increase in biosynthetic activity of NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, 2) an increase in activity of neurons that secrete beta-endorphin, and 3) a decrease in biosynthesis of LHRH [14].
  • Two populations of the NPY-positive neurons were detected and evaluated in the infundibular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus [12].
  • For NPY, the number of cells counted in the arcuate nucleus/median eminence region and the number of silver grains per cell was significantly lower in animals killed during August than in animals killed in February or December [15].
  • These studies indicate that changes in photoperiod may regulate ER expression within the preoptic area and suggest that hypothalamic NPY and betaE neurons are involved in the seasonal regulation of reproductive activity in the ewe [16].
  • Following at least 5 days of recovery, one group of fetuses (n = 9) was subjected to a 30 min treatment period with exogenous NPY (17 microg kg(-1) bolus plus 0.85 microg kg(-1) min(-1) infusion) [17].

Associations of NPY with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of NPY

  • Basal episodic profiles (pre-E beta) of LH, GH, and PRL were similar in ovx ewes infused with control or anti-NPY serum [20].
  • Since dietary restrictions and exogenous NPY have similar influence on the activation of GH secretion, we suggest that NPY could be a neuromodulatory link between nutritional cues and somatotropic axis in sheep [21].

Other interactions of NPY


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of NPY


  1. Leptin secretion and hypothalamic neuropeptide and receptor gene expression in sheep. Sorensen, A., Adam, C.L., Findlay, P.A., Marie, M., Thomas, L., Travers, M.T., Vernon, R.G. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Neuropeptide Y in the sheep fetus: effects of acute hypoxemia and dexamethasone during late gestation. Fletchert, A.J., Edwards, C.M., Gardner, D.S., Fowden, A.L., Giussani, D.A. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Cardiovascular and endocrine responses to acute hypoxaemia during and following dexamethasone infusion in the ovine fetus. Fletcher, A.J., Gardner, D.S., Edwards, C.M., Fowden, A.L., Giussani, D.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonism attenuates the haemodynamic and glycaemic responses to acute hypoxaemia in the late gestation sheep fetus. Thakor, A.S., Bloomfield, M.R., Patterson, M., Giussani, D.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Studies of the secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor and arginine vasopressin into the hypophysial-portal circulation of the conscious sheep. II. The central noradrenergic and neuropeptide Y pathways cause immediate and prolonged hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activation. Potential involvement in the pseudo-Cushing's syndrome of endogenous depression and anorexia nervosa. Liu, J.P., Clarke, I.J., Funder, J.W., Engler, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Impact of glucose infusion on the structural and functional characteristics of adipose tissue and on hypothalamic gene expression for appetite regulatory neuropeptides in the sheep fetus during late gestation. Mühlhäusler, B.S., Adam, C.L., Marrocco, E.M., Findlay, P.A., Roberts, C.T., McFarlane, J.R., Kauter, K.G., McMillen, I.C. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Reduction in adiposity affects the extent of afferent projections to growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin neurons and the degree of colocalization of neuropeptides in growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin cells of the ovine hypothalamus. Iqbal, J., Manley, T.R., Ciofi, P., Clarke, I.J. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of neuropeptide Y and calcitonin gene-related peptide on sheep coronary artery rings under oxygenated, hypoxic and simulated myocardial ischaemic conditions. Kwan, Y.W., Wadsworth, R.M., Kane, K.A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of increasing gestation, cortisol and maternal undernutrition on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y expression in the sheep fetus. Warnes, K.E., Morris, M.J., Symonds, M.E., Phillips, I.D., Clarke, I.J., Owens, J.A., McMillen, I.C. J. Neuroendocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Development of baroreflex and endocrine responses to hypotensive stress in newborn foals and lambs. O'Connor, S.J., Gardner, D.S., Ousey, J.C., Holdstock, N., Rossdale, P., Edwards, C.M., Fowden, A.L., Giussani, D.A. Pflugers Arch. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Long-term alterations in adiposity affect the expression of melanin-concentrating hormone and enkephalin but not proopiomelanocortin in the hypothalamus of ovariectomized ewes. Henry, B.A., Tilbrook, A.J., Dunshea, F.R., Rao, A., Blache, D., Martin, G.B., Clarke, I.J. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Expression of NPY-immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamus of the cycling ewe. Polkowska, J., Wańkowska, M., Wójcik-Gładysz, A. Folia Histochem. Cytobiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) delays the oestrogen-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in the ovariectomized ewe: further evidence that NPY has a predominant negative effect on LH secretion in the ewe. Estrada, K.M., Pompolo, S., Morris, M.J., Tilbrook, A.J., Clarke, I.J. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Influence of food restriction on neuropeptide-Y, proopiomelanocortin, and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone gene expression in sheep hypothalami. McShane, T.M., Petersen, S.L., McCrone, S., Keisler, D.H. Biol. Reprod. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Seasonal changes in the expression of neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA in the arcuate nucleus of the ovariectomized ewe: relationship to the seasonal appetite and breeding cycles. Clarke, I.J., Scott, C.J., Rao, A., Pompolo, S., Barker-Gibb, M.L. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of photoperiod on estrogen receptor, tyrosine hydroxylase, neuropeptide Y, and beta-endorphin immunoreactivity in the ewe hypothalamus. Skinner, D.C., Herbison, A.E. Endocrinology (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. The role of neuropeptide Y in the ovine fetal cardiovascular response to reduced oxygenation. Sanhueza, E.M., Johansen-Bibby, A.A., Fletcher, A.J., Riquelme, R.A., Daniels, A.J., Serón-Ferré, M., Gaete, C.R., Carrasco, J.E., Llanos, A.J., Giussani, D.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Early decrease of proopiomelanocortin but not neuropeptide Y mRNA expression in the mediobasal hypothalamus of the ewe, during the estradiol-induced preovulatory LH surge. Pillon, D., Caraty, A., Fabre-Nys, C., Bruneau, G. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Hypothalamic gene expression in sheep for cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, pro-opiomelanocortin, neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide and leptin receptor and responses to negative energy balance. Adam, C.L., Archer, Z.A., Findlay, P.A., Thomas, L., Marie, M. Neuroendocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone, growth hormone, and prolactin in untreated and estradiol-treated ovariectomized ewes after immunoneutralization of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y. Malven, P.V., Haglof, S.A., Jiang, H. J. Anim. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of central infusions of neuropeptide Y on the somatotropic axis in sheep fed on two levels of protein. Gładysz, A., Krejci, P., Simůnek, J., Polkowska, J. Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Hypothalamic control of photoperiod-induced cycles in food intake, body weight, and metabolic hormones in rams. Lincoln, G.A., Rhind, S.M., Pompolo, S., Clarke, I.J. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Changes in expression of the genes for the leptin receptor and the growth hormone-releasing peptide/ghrelin receptor in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus with long-term manipulation of adiposity by dietary means. Kurose, Y., Iqbal, J., Rao, A., Murata, Y., Hasegawa, Y., Terashima, Y., Kojima, M., Kangawa, K., Clarke, I.J. J. Neuroendocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Distribution of neuropeptides in the infundibular nucleus of the sheep. Antonopoulos, J., Papadopoulos, G.C., Karamanlidis, A.N., Michaloudi, H. Neuropeptides (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and C-flanking peptide of NPY in the pineal gland of normal and ganglionectomized sheep. Cozzi, B., Mikkelsen, J.D., Ravault, J.P., Møller, M. J. Comp. Neurol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Many peptides that are present in the external zone of the median eminence are not secreted into the hypophysial portal blood of sheep. Clarke, I., Jessop, D., Millar, R., Morris, M., Bloom, S., Lightman, S., Coen, C.W., Lew, R., Smith, I. Neuroendocrinology (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Regulation of gonadotropin releasing hormone release by neuropeptide Y at the median eminence during the preovulatory period in ewes. Advis, J.P., Klein, J., Kuljis, R.O., Sarkar, D.K., McDonald, J.M., Conover, C.A. Neuroendocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. The role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the control of LH secretion in the ewe with respect to season, NPY receptor subtype and the site of action in the hypothalamus. Barker-Gibb, M.L., Scott, C.J., Boublik, J.H., Clarke, I.J. J. Endocrinol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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