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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

African Americans

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Disease relevance of African Americans


Psychiatry related information on African Americans


High impact information on African Americans


Chemical compound and disease context of African Americans


Biological context of African Americans


Anatomical context of African Americans


Associations of African Americans with chemical compounds


Gene context of African Americans

  • The association between APOE epsilon4 and AD in African Americans requires clarification, and the attenuated effect of APOE epsilon4 in Hispanics should be investigated further [14].
  • Here we report the identification of 16 additional mutations in the coding region of the CCR5 gene, all but 3 of which are codon altering or "nonsynonymous." Most mutations were rare (found only once or twice in the sample); five were detected exclusively among African Americans, whereas eight were observed only in Caucasians [35].
  • Here, we characterize the sequence variation and haplotype structure of the HLA-G promoter and flanking sequences in 44 African Americans, 47 European Americans and 43 Han Chinese by haplotype-specific PCR and sequencing [36].
  • We have found that alterations in a fifth member of this family, GJA1 (Cx43), appear to cause a common form of deafness in African Americans [37].
  • Our results demonstrate association between AD and variants in the PON gene cluster in Caucasians and African Americans [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of African Americans


  1. Contrasting genetic influence of CCR2 and CCR5 variants on HIV-1 infection and disease progression. Hemophilia Growth and Development Study (HGDS), Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study (MHCS), San Francisco City Cohort (SFCC), ALIVE Study. Smith, M.W., Dean, M., Carrington, M., Winkler, C., Huttley, G.A., Lomb, D.A., Goedert, J.J., O'Brien, T.R., Jacobson, L.P., Kaslow, R., Buchbinder, S., Vittinghoff, E., Vlahov, D., Hoots, K., Hilgartner, M.W., O'Brien, S.J. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Hospitalization for congestive heart failure. Explaining racial differences. Alexander, M., Grumbach, K., Selby, J., Brown, A.F., Washington, E. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Polymorphism of glutathione S-transferase M1 and lung cancer risk among African-Americans and Caucasians in Los Angeles County, California. London, S.J., Daly, A.K., Cooper, J., Navidi, W.C., Carpenter, C.L., Idle, J.R. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. A common cardiac sodium channel variant associated with sudden infant death in African Americans, SCN5A S1103Y. Plant, L.D., Bowers, P.N., Liu, Q., Morgan, T., Zhang, T., State, M.W., Chen, W., Kittles, R.A., Goldstein, S.A. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Brain renin-angiotensin system blockade by systemically active aminopeptidase A inhibitors: a potential treatment of salt-dependent hypertension. Fournie-Zaluski, M.C., Fassot, C., Valentin, B., Djordjijevic, D., Reaux-Le Goazigo, A., Corvol, P., Roques, B.P., Llorens-Cortes, C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Sustained-release bupropion for smoking cessation in African Americans: a randomized controlled trial. Ahluwalia, J.S., Harris, K.J., Catley, D., Okuyemi, K.S., Mayo, M.S. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Serum cholesterol, APOE genotype, and the risk of Alzheimer's disease: a population-based study of African Americans. Evans, R.M., Emsley, C.L., Gao, S., Sahota, A., Hall, K.S., Farlow, M.R., Hendrie, H. Neurology (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Physical activity and NIDDM in African-Americans. The Pitt County Study. James, S.A., Jamjoum, L., Raghunathan, T.E., Strogatz, D.S., Furth, E.D., Khazanie, P.G. Diabetes Care (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Prevalence of depression by race/ethnicity: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. Riolo, S.A., Nguyen, T.A., Greden, J.F., King, C.A. American journal of public health. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Prostate cancer in African Americans: relationship of patient and partner self-efficacy to quality of life. Campbell, L.C., Keefe, F.J., McKee, D.C., Edwards, C.L., Herman, S.H., Johnson, L.E., Colvin, O.M., McBride, C.M., Donattuci, C.F. Journal of pain and symptom management. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Low LDL cholesterol in individuals of African descent resulting from frequent nonsense mutations in PCSK9. Cohen, J., Pertsemlidis, A., Kotowski, I.K., Graham, R., Garcia, C.K., Hobbs, H.H. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Sequence diversity in CYP3A promoters and characterization of the genetic basis of polymorphic CYP3A5 expression. Kuehl, P., Zhang, J., Lin, Y., Lamba, J., Assem, M., Schuetz, J., Watkins, P.B., Daly, A., Wrighton, S.A., Hall, S.D., Maurel, P., Relling, M., Brimer, C., Yasuda, K., Venkataramanan, R., Strom, S., Thummel, K., Boguski, M.S., Schuetz, E. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. The APOE-epsilon4 allele and the risk of Alzheimer disease among African Americans, whites, and Hispanics. Tang, M.X., Stern, Y., Marder, K., Bell, K., Gurland, B., Lantigua, R., Andrews, H., Feng, L., Tycko, B., Mayeux, R. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on the association between apolipoprotein E genotype and Alzheimer disease. A meta-analysis. APOE and Alzheimer Disease Meta Analysis Consortium. Farrer, L.A., Cupples, L.A., Haines, J.L., Hyman, B., Kukull, W.A., Mayeux, R., Myers, R.H., Pericak-Vance, M.A., Risch, N., van Duijn, C.M. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification of common cystic fibrosis mutations in African-Americans with cystic fibrosis increases the detection rate to 75%. Macek, M., Mackova, A., Hamosh, A., Hilman, B.C., Selden, R.F., Lucotte, G., Friedman, K.J., Knowles, M.R., Rosenstein, B.J., Cutting, G.R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Hematologic differences between African-Americans and whites: the roles of iron deficiency and alpha-thalassemia on hemoglobin levels and mean corpuscular volume. Beutler, E., West, C. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. The efficacy of lovastatin in lowering cholesterol in African Americans with primary hypercholesterolemia. Fong, R.L., Ward, H.J. Am. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Differing effects of antihypertensive drugs on the incidence of diabetes mellitus among patients with hypertensive kidney disease. Thornley-Brown, D., Wang, X., Wright, J.T., Randall, O.S., Miller, E.R., Lash, J.P., Gassman, J., Contreras, G., Appel, L.J., Agodoa, L.Y., Cheek, D. Arch. Intern. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Contrasting effects of calcium channel blockade versus converting enzyme inhibition on proteinuria in African Americans with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and nephropathy. Guasch, A., Parham, M., Zayas, C.F., Campbell, O., Nzerue, C., Macon, E. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Relative risk of Alzheimer disease and age-at-onset distributions, based on APOE genotypes among elderly African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics in New York City. Tang, M.X., Maestre, G., Tsai, W.Y., Liu, X.H., Feng, L., Chung, W.Y., Chun, M., Schofield, P., Stern, Y., Tycko, B., Mayeux, R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Survey of the fragile X syndrome CGG repeat and the short-tandem-repeat and single-nucleotide-polymorphism haplotypes in an African American population. Crawford, D.C., Schwartz, C.E., Meadows, K.L., Newman, J.L., Taft, L.F., Gunter, C., Brown, W.T., Carpenter, N.J., Howard-Peebles, P.N., Monaghan, K.G., Nolin, S.L., Reiss, A.L., Feldman, G.L., Rohlfs, E.M., Warren, S.T., Sherman, S.L. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. A single point mutation leading to loss of catalytic activity in human thiopurine S-methyltransferase. Krynetski, E.Y., Schuetz, J.D., Galpin, A.J., Pui, C.H., Relling, M.V., Evans, W.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Significant admixture linkage disequilibrium across 30 cM around the FY locus in African Americans. Lautenberger, J.A., Stephens, J.C., O'Brien, S.J., Smith, M.W. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Recombinational and mutational hotspots within the human lipoprotein lipase gene. Templeton, A.R., Clark, A.G., Weiss, K.M., Nickerson, D.A., Boerwinkle, E., Sing, C.F. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. T cell receptor repertoire differences between African Americans and Caucasians associated with polymorphism of the TCRBV3S1 (V beta 3.1) gene. De Inocencio, J., Choi, E., Glass, D.N., Hirsch, R. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Angiotensinogen gene polymorphism at -217 affects basal promoter activity and is associated with hypertension in African-Americans. Jain, S., Tang, X., Narayanan, C.S., Agarwal, Y., Peterson, S.M., Brown, C.D., Ott, J., Kumar, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Sex differences in visceral adipose tissue volume among African Americans. Sumner, A.E., Farmer, N.M., Tulloch-Reid, M.K., Sebring, N.G., Yanovski, J.A., Reynolds, J.C., Boston, R.C., Premkumar, A. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Amelioration of nephropathy in mice expressing HIV-1 genes by the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol. Nelson, P.J., D'Agati, V.D., Gries, J.M., Suarez, J.R., Gelman, I.H. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Hypertension in African Americans: the role of sodium chloride and extracellular fluid volume. Weinberger, M.H. Semin. Nephrol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Comparative analysis of the apo(a) gene, apo(a) glycoprotein, and plasma concentrations of Lp(a) in three ethnic groups. Evidence for no common "null" allele at the apo(a) locus. Gaw, A., Boerwinkle, E., Cohen, J.C., Hobbs, H.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Differences in insulin resistance in nondiabetic subjects with isolated impaired glucose tolerance or isolated impaired fasting glucose. Festa, A., D'Agostino, R., Hanley, A.J., Karter, A.J., Saad, M.F., Haffner, S.M. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Analysis of quantitative lipid traits in the genetics of NIDDM (GENNID) study. Malhotra, A., Wolford, J.K. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. The codon 47 polymorphism in p53 is functionally significant. Li, X., Dumont, P., Della Pietra, A., Shetler, C., Murphy, M.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Evaluation of serum creatinine for estimating glomerular filtration rate in African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis: results from the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Pilot Study. Toto, R.D., Kirk, K.A., Coresh, J., Jones, C., Appel, L., Wright, J., Campese, V., Olutade, B., Agodoa, L. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Novel alleles of the chemokine-receptor gene CCR5. Carrington, M., Kissner, T., Gerrard, B., Ivanov, S., O'Brien, S.J., Dean, M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Evidence of balancing selection at the HLA-G promoter region. Tan, Z., Shon, A.M., Ober, C. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Mutations in GJA1 (connexin 43) are associated with non-syndromic autosomal recessive deafness. Liu, X.Z., Xia, X.J., Adams, J., Chen, Z.Y., Welch, K.O., Tekin, M., Ouyang, X.M., Kristiansen, A., Pandya, A., Balkany, T., Arnos, K.S., Nance, W.E. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Polymorphisms in the PON gene cluster are associated with Alzheimer disease. Erlich, P.M., Lunetta, K.L., Cupples, L.A., Huyck, M., Green, R.C., Baldwin, C.T., Farrer, L.A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  39. Polymorphism of the thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene in African-Americans. Hon, Y.Y., Fessing, M.Y., Pui, C.H., Relling, M.V., Krynetski, E.Y., Evans, W.E. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  40. Relationship between transferrin saturation and iron stores in the African American and US Caucasian populations: analysis of data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. McLaren, C.E., Li, K.T., Gordeuk, V.R., Hasselblad, V., McLaren, G.D. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Relationship of insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2 genotypes to phenotypic features of polycystic ovary syndrome. Ehrmann, D.A., Tang, X., Yoshiuchi, I., Cox, N.J., Bell, G.I. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. Increased calcium stores in platelets from African Americans. Cho, J.H., Nash, F., Fekete, Z., Kimura, M., Reeves, J.P., Aviv, A. Hypertension (1995) [Pubmed]
  43. Lung cancer risk and CYP1A1 genotype in African Americans. Taioli, E., Ford, J., Trachman, J., Li, Y., Demopoulos, R., Garte, S. Carcinogenesis (1998) [Pubmed]
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