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Gene Review

Gjd2  -  gap junction protein, delta 2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Connexin-36, Cx36, Gap junction alpha-9 protein, Gap junction delta-2 protein, Gja9
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Disease relevance of Gja9

  • It blocked Cx36 channels, expressed in transfected N2A neuroblastoma cells, at low concentrations (IC(50) approximately 300 nM) [1].
  • In this study, we show alteration of Cx43 and Cx36 in the hippocampus after traumatic brain injury in rats [2].
  • PURPOSE: The selective contribution of neuronal gap junction (GJ) communication via connexin 36 (Cx36) channels to epileptogenesis and to the maintenance and propagation of seizures was investigated in both the primary focus and the mirror focus by using pharmacologic approaches with the 4-aminopyridine in vivo epilepsy model [3].

High impact information on Gja9


Biological context of Gja9

  • We investigated the contribution of this protein in normal beta-cell function by using a viral gene transfer approach to alter Cx36 content in the insulin-producing line of INS-1E cells and rat pancreatic islets [6].
  • After infection with a sense viral vector, which induced de novo Cx36 expression in the Cx-defective HeLa cells we used to control the transgene expression, Western blot, immunofluorescence, and freeze-fracture analysis showed a large increase of Cx36 within INS-1E cell membranes [6].
  • Taken together, these data provide evidence that glucose represses the expression of Cx36 through the cAMP-PKA pathway, which activates a member of the CRE binding protein family [7].
  • Moreover, KCl-induced depolarization of beta-cells had no effect on Cx36 expression, indicating that glucose metabolism and ATP production are not mandatory for glucose-induced Cx36 downregulation [7].
  • Reporter-gene activity driven by various Cx36 promoter fragments indicated that Cx36 repression requires the presence of a highly conserved cAMP responsive element (CRE) [7].

Anatomical context of Gja9


Associations of Gja9 with chemical compounds

  • The data indicate that large changes in Cx36 alter insulin content and, at least in INS-1E cells, also affect glucose-induced insulin release [6].
  • Glucose or forskolin effects on Cx36 expression were not suppressed by the L-type Ca(2+)-channel blocker nifedipine but were fully blunted by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor H89 [7].
  • Brain coronal sections were used for immunohistochemistry with Cx43 and Cx36 antibodies [2].
  • The NRSF-mediated repression of Cx36 in HeLa cells was abolished by trichostatin A, confirming the functional importance of histone deacetylase activity [10].
  • METHODS: ECoG recording was performed on anesthetized adult rats, in which either quinine, a selective blocker of Cx36, or the broad-spectrum GJ blockers carbenoxolone and octanol were applied locally, before the induction or at already active epileptic foci [3].

Other interactions of Gja9


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gja9

  • By Western blotting, these antibodies detected protein at 36 and 66 kDa, corresponding to Cx36 monomer and dimer forms, respectively [8].
  • Multisite electromyography revealed that blocking Cx36 in the IO impaired the coherence of muscle firing during harmaline tremor without affecting its rhythm [13].
  • In addition, none of the tested SNc cells (n = 12) showed expression of connexin 36 (the "neuronal" connexin) when tested with single-cell RT-PCR [14].
  • The distribution of connexin36 (Cx36) in the adult rat brain and retina has been analysed at the protein (immunofluorescence) and mRNA (in situ hybridization) level [15].
  • Co-immunoprecipitation experiments with monkey COS-7 cells transiently transfected with both mutant and wild-type Cx36 cDNAs demonstrated that the mutant protein bound to the wild-type [16].


  1. Potent block of Cx36 and Cx50 gap junction channels by mefloquine. Cruikshank, S.J., Hopperstad, M., Younger, M., Connors, B.W., Spray, D.C., Srinivas, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Alteration of gap junction proteins (connexins) following lateral fluid percussion injury in rats. Ohsumi, A., Nawashiro, H., Otani, N., Ooigawa, H., Toyooka, T., Yano, A., Nomura, N., Shima, K. Acta Neurochir. Suppl. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Quinine, a blocker of neuronal cx36 channels, suppresses seizure activity in rat neocortex in vivo. Gajda, Z., Szupera, Z., Blazsó, G., Szente, M. Epilepsia (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Electrical synapses in the mammalian brain. Connors, B.W., Long, M.A. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. NMDA receptors regulate developmental gap junction uncoupling via CREB signaling. Arumugam, H., Liu, X., Colombo, P.J., Corriveau, R.A., Belousov, A.B. Nat. Neurosci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Connexin-36 contributes to control function of insulin-producing cells. Le Gurun, S., Martin, D., Formenton, A., Maechler, P., Caille, D., Waeber, G., Meda, P., Haefliger, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Glucose represses connexin36 in insulin-secreting cells. Allagnat, F., Martin, D., Condorelli, D.F., Waeber, G., Haefliger, J.A. J. Cell. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Immunogold evidence that neuronal gap junctions in adult rat brain and spinal cord contain connexin-36 but not connexin-32 or connexin-43. Rash, J.E., Staines, W.A., Yasumura, T., Patel, D., Furman, C.S., Stelmack, G.L., Nagy, J.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Cx36 preferentially connects beta-cells within pancreatic islets. Serre-Beinier, V., Le Gurun, S., Belluardo, N., Trovato-Salinaro, A., Charollais, A., Haefliger, J.A., Condorelli, D.F., Meda, P. Diabetes (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Critical role of the transcriptional repressor neuron-restrictive silencer factor in the specific control of connexin36 in insulin-producing cell lines. Martin, D., Tawadros, T., Meylan, L., Abderrahmani, A., Condorelli, D.F., Waeber, G., Haefliger, J.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of cells expressing Cx43, Cx30, Cx26, Cx32 and Cx36 in gap junctions of rat brain and spinal cord. Rash, J.E., Yasumura, T., Davidson, K.G., Furman, C.S., Dudek, F.E., Nagy, J.I. Cell Commun. Adhes. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Connexin expression patterns in the rat cornea: molecular evidence for communication compartments. Laux-Fenton, W.T., Donaldson, P.J., Kistler, J., Green, C.R. Cornea (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Fundamental role of inferior olive connexin 36 in muscle coherence during tremor. Placantonakis, D.G., Bukovsky, A.A., Zeng, X.H., Kiem, H.P., Welsh, J.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Dendritic projections and dye-coupling in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra examined in horizontal brain slices from young rats. Lin, J.Y., van Wyk, M., Bowala, T.K., Teo, M.Y., Lipski, J. J. Neurophysiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of connexin36 in the adult and developing rat brain. Belluardo, N., Mud¿o, G., Trovato-Salinaro, A., Le Gurun, S., Charollais, A., Serre-Beinier, V., Amato, G., Haefliger, J.A., Meda, P., Condorelli, D.F. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. A dominant negative mutation of neuronal connexin 36 that blocks intercellular permeability. Placantonakis, D., Cicirata, F., Welsh, J.P. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
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