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Gene Review

Gjb1  -  gap junction protein, beta 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Connexin-32, Cx32, Cxn-32, GAP junction 28 kDa liver protein, Gap junction beta-1 protein
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Disease relevance of Gjb1


High impact information on Gjb1

  • By probing the accessibility of systematically substituted cysteine residues to thiol blockers (a technique called SCAM), we have identified the pore-lining residues of a gap junction channel composed of Cx32 [6].
  • The mRNA and protein expression of alpha 1 (connexin 43), beta 1 (connexin 32), and beta 2 (connexin 26) gap junction genes were examined in the regenerating rat liver after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH) [7].
  • We observed no cell-cell dye transfer 4 min after microinjection in 90% of the cell pairs treated with Fab fragments of antibodies for the first or second extracellular domain of Cx43, the second extracellular domain of connexin32 (Cx32) or A-CAM [8].
  • These results indicated the different changes of expression and function of Cx26 and Cx32 in the hepatocytes during stimulation and re-inhibition of DNA synthesis [9].
  • Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), as measured by lucifer yellow, which indicated the function of Cx32, decreased markedly from before the onset of the S phase [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Gjb1


Biological context of Gjb1


Anatomical context of Gjb1


Associations of Gjb1 with chemical compounds


Co-localisations of Gjb1

  • Immunocytochemically, Cx26-positive spots were observed between most adjacent cells and were co-localized with the Cx32-positive spots [23].

Regulatory relationships of Gjb1

  • Unexpectedly, 9618A cells expressed Cx43 mRNA and protein in cell culture but expressed Cx32 mRNA in vivo [24].
  • Although the expression of Cx32 mRNA was also influenced by glucagon, the increase of the expression was small [23].

Other interactions of Gjb1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gjb1


  1. Identification of functional regulatory regions of the connexin32 gene promoter. Field, J.M., Tate, L.A., Chipman, J.K., Minchin, S.D. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Altered connexin expression after peripheral nerve injury. Chandross, K.J., Kessler, J.A., Cohen, R.I., Simburger, E., Spray, D.C., Bieri, P., Dermietzel, R. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Connexin32 is a myelin-related protein in the PNS and CNS. Scherer, S.S., Deschênes, S.M., Xu, Y.T., Grinspan, J.B., Fischbeck, K.H., Paul, D.L. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Differential decrease in connexin 32 expression in ischemic and nonischemic regions of rat liver during ischemia/reperfusion. Gingalewski, C., De Maio, A. J. Cell. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. The effects of water extracts of CagA positive or negative Helicobacter pylori on proliferation, apoptosis and connexin formation in acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer of rats. Mine, T., Endo, C., Kushima, R., Kushima, W., Kobayashi, I., Muraoka, H., Taki, R., Fujita, T. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of amino acid residues lining the pore of a gap junction channel. Skerrett, I.M., Aronowitz, J., Shin, J.H., Cymes, G., Kasperek, E., Cao, F.L., Nicholson, B.J. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Differential regulation of multiple gap junction transcripts and proteins during rat liver regeneration. Kren, B.T., Kumar, N.M., Wang, S.Q., Gilula, N.B., Steer, C.J. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibition of gap junction and adherens junction assembly by connexin and A-CAM antibodies. Meyer, R.A., Laird, D.W., Revel, J.P., Johnson, R.G. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Different changes in expression and function of connexin 26 and connexin 32 during DNA synthesis and redifferentiation in primary rat hepatocytes using a DMSO culture system. Kojima, T., Yamamoto, M., Mochizuki, C., Mitaka, T., Sawada, N., Mochizuki, Y. Hepatology (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Cell proliferation and advancement of hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat are associated with a decrease in connexin 32 expression. Tsuda, H., Asamoto, M., Baba, H., Iwahori, Y., Matsumoto, K., Iwase, T., Nishida, Y., Nagao, S., Hakoi, K., Yamaguchi, S. Carcinogenesis (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Mechanistic study on liver tumor promoting effects of piperonyl butoxide in rats. Okamiya, H., Mitsumori, K., Onodera, H., Ito, S., Imazawa, T., Yasuhara, K., Takahashi, M. Arch. Toxicol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Formation of three-dimensional thyroid follicle-like structures by polarized FRT cells made communication competent by transfection and stable expression of the connexin-32 gene. Tonoli, H., Flachon, V., Audebet, C., Callé, A., Jarry-Guichard, T., Statuto, M., Rousset, B., Munari-Silem, Y. Endocrinology (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Connexin 32 of gap junctions contains two cytoplasmic calmodulin-binding domains. Török, K., Stauffer, K., Evans, W.H. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential expression of major gap junction proteins, connexins 26 and 32, in rat mammary glands during pregnancy and lactation. Yamanaka, I., Kuraoka, A., Inai, T., Ishibashi, T., Shibata, Y. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Immunogold evidence that neuronal gap junctions in adult rat brain and spinal cord contain connexin-36 but not connexin-32 or connexin-43. Rash, J.E., Staines, W.A., Yasumura, T., Patel, D., Furman, C.S., Stelmack, G.L., Nagy, J.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Expression of multiple connexins in the rat epididymis indicates a complex regulation of gap junctional communication. Dufresne, J., Finnson, K.W., Gregory, M., Cyr, D.G. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of cells expressing Cx43, Cx30, Cx26, Cx32 and Cx36 in gap junctions of rat brain and spinal cord. Rash, J.E., Yasumura, T., Davidson, K.G., Furman, C.S., Dudek, F.E., Nagy, J.I. Cell Commun. Adhes. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Glial and neuronal connexin expression patterns in the rat spinal cord during development and following injury. Lee, I.H., Lindqvist, E., Kiehn, O., Widenfalk, J., Olson, L. J. Comp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of phenobarbital on hepatic gap junctional intercellular communication in rats. Ito, S., Tsuda, M., Yoshitake, A., Yanai, T., Masegi, T. Toxicologic pathology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Proliferation-associated differences in the spatial and temporal expression of gap junction genes in rat liver. Neveu, M.J., Hully, J.R., Babcock, K.L., Vaughan, J., Hertzberg, E.L., Nicholson, B.J., Paul, D.L., Pitot, H.C. Hepatology (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Heteromeric, but not homomeric, connexin channels are selectively permeable to inositol phosphates. Ayad, W.A., Locke, D., Koreen, I.V., Harris, A.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Multiple mechanisms are responsible for altered expression of gap junction genes during oncogenesis in rat liver. Neveu, M.J., Hully, J.R., Babcock, K.L., Hertzberg, E.L., Nicholson, B.J., Paul, D.L., Pitot, H.C. J. Cell. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Induction and regulation of connexin26 by glucagon in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. Kojima, T., Mitaka, T., Shibata, Y., Mochizuki, Y. J. Cell. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Differences in the expression of connexin genes in rat hepatomas in vivo and in vitro. Neveu, M.J., Sattler, C.A., Sattler, G.L., Hully, J.R., Hertzberg, E.L., Paul, D.L., Nicholson, B.J., Pitot, H.C. Mol. Carcinog. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Time-related changes in connexin mRNA abundance in the rat neocortex during postnatal development. Prime, G., Horn, G., Sutor, B. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Restoration of cell-to-cell communication in thyroid cell lines by transfection with and stable expression of the connexin-32 gene. Impact on cell proliferation and tissue-specific gene expression. Statuto, M., Audebet, C., Tonoli, H., Selmi-Ruby, S., Rousset, B., Munari-Silem, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Epileptiform activity in hippocampal slice cultures exposed chronically to bicuculline: increased gap junctional function and expression. Samoilova, M., Li, J., Pelletier, M.R., Wentlandt, K., Adamchik, Y., Naus, C.C., Carlen, P.L. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Changes in cellular distribution of connexins 32 and 26 during formation of gap junctions in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Kojima, T., Yamamoto, M., Tobioka, H., Mizuguchi, T., Mitaka, T., Mochizuki, Y. Exp. Cell Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of connexin 32 and 43 in developing rat submandibular salivary glands. Ihara, A., Muramatsu, T., Shimono, M. Arch. Oral Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Altered expression and function of hepatocyte gap junctions after common bile duct ligation in the rat. Fallon, M.B., Nathanson, M.H., Mennone, A., Sáez, J.C., Burgstahler, A.D., Anderson, J.M. Am. J. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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