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Gene Review

Pnpla6  -  patatin-like phospholipase domain...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AI661849, MSws, Neuropathy target esterase, Nte, Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 6, ...
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Disease relevance of Pnpla6


High impact information on Pnpla6

  • Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) was recently shown to be a phospholipase B that catalyzes production of GPC from phosphatidylcholine [5].
  • Further, the lower renal inner medullary interstitial NaCl concentration that occurs chronically in ClCK1(-/-) mice and acutely in normal mice given furosemide is associated with lower NTE mRNA and protein [5].
  • Neuropathy target esterase catalyzes osmoprotective renal synthesis of glycerophosphocholine in response to high NaCl [5].
  • Diisopropyl fluorophosphate, which inhibits NTE esterase activity, reduces GPC accumulation, as does an siRNA that specifically reduces NTE protein abundance [5].
  • Absence of NTE resulted in disruption of the endoplasmic reticulum, vacuolation of nerve cell bodies, and abnormal reticular aggregates [2].

Biological context of Pnpla6

  • The active site region of NTE as a recombinant protein preferentially hydrolyzes lysolecithin, suggesting that this enzyme may be a type of lysophospholipase (LysoPLA) with lysolecithin as its physiological substrate [3].
  • Drosophila mutants for the homolog gene of NTE, swisscheese (sws), indicated a possible involvement of sws in the regulation of axon-glial cell interaction during glial wrapping [2].
  • Second, the potency of six delayed neurotoxicants or toxicants as in vitro inhibitors varies from IC50 0.02 to 13,000 nM and is essentially the same for NTE-LysoPLA and NTE (r2 = 0.98) [3].
  • Age-dependent neurodegeneration resulting from widespread apoptosis of neurons and glia characterize the Drosophila Swiss Cheese (SWS) mutant [6].
  • To investigate the physiological functions of NTE, we inactivated its gene by targeted mutagenesis in embryonic stem cells [6].

Anatomical context of Pnpla6

  • Here we show that loss of NTE leads to prominent neuronal pathology in the hippocampus and thalamus and also defects in the cerebellum [2].
  • Histological analysis indicated that NTE is essential for the formation of the labyrinth layer and survival and differentiation of secondary giant cells [6].
  • Additionally, impairment of vasculogenesis in the yolk sacs and embryos of null mutant conceptuses suggested that NTE is also required for normal blood vessel development [6].
  • Actions of two highly potent organophosphorus neuropathy target esterase inhibitors in mammalian cell lines [7].
  • Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) reacts with those organophosphates, which cause paralysis with swelling and degeneration of distal parts of long nerves in the legs and spinal cord [8].

Associations of Pnpla6 with chemical compounds

  • This hypothesis is tested here in mouse brain by replacing the phenyl valerate substrate of the standard NTE assay with lysolecithin for an "NTE-LysoPLA" assay with four important findings [3].
  • This species difference is reevaluated with two optimized inhibitors of hen brain NTE by examining them for potential neurotoxic effects in mice [9].
  • Diazinon had no effect on the activity of neuropathy target esterase [10].
  • Neither ecothiopate nor paraoxon inhibited NTE, so this prejunctional effect is not likely to be related to 'classical' OP-induced delayed neuropathy [11].
  • Homogenates from hens were more sensitive to NTE inhibition induced by phenyl saligenin phosphate (PSP), an active congener of TOTP, than were homogenates from less susceptible species (mouse, rat, bovine) [12].

Other interactions of Pnpla6


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pnpla6

  • Therefore, OP-induced delayed toxicity in mice, and possibly the hyperactivity associated with NTE deficiency, may be due to NTE-LysoPLA inhibition, leading to localized accumulation of lysolecithin, a known demyelinating agent and receptor-mediated signal transducer [3].
  • Subacute neurotoxic signs are always associated with at least 80% inhibition of brain NTE activity 16-24 hr after treatment [9].


  1. Loss of neuropathy target esterase in mice links organophosphate exposure to hyperactivity. Winrow, C.J., Hemming, M.L., Allen, D.M., Quistad, G.B., Casida, J.E., Barlow, C. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Brain-specific deletion of neuropathy target esterase/swisscheese results in neurodegeneration. Akassoglou, K., Malester, B., Xu, J., Tessarollo, L., Rosenbluth, J., Chao, M.V. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Evidence that mouse brain neuropathy target esterase is a lysophospholipase. Quistad, G.B., Barlow, C., Winrow, C.J., Sparks, S.E., Casida, J.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Inhibition of neurite outgrowth in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells by phenyl saligenin phosphate: effects on MAP kinase (ERK 1/2) activation, neurofilament heavy chain phosphorylation and neuropathy target esterase activity. Hargreaves, A.J., Fowler, M.J., Sachana, M., Flaskos, J., Bountouri, M., Coutts, I.C., Glynn, P., Harris, W., Graham McLean, W. Biochem. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Neuropathy target esterase catalyzes osmoprotective renal synthesis of glycerophosphocholine in response to high NaCl. Gallazzini, M., Ferraris, J.D., Kunin, M., Morris, R.G., Burg, M.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Placental failure and impaired vasculogenesis result in embryonic lethality for neuropathy target esterase-deficient mice. Moser, M., Li, Y., Vaupel, K., Kretzschmar, D., Kluge, R., Glynn, P., Buettner, R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Actions of two highly potent organophosphorus neuropathy target esterase inhibitors in mammalian cell lines. Li, W., Casida, J.E. Toxicol. Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. A mechanism for organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy. Glynn, P. Toxicol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Subacute neurotoxicity induced in mice by potent organophosphorus neuropathy target esterase inhibitors. Wu, S.Y., Casida, J.E. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Electrophysiological and biochemical effects of single and multiple doses of the organophosphate diazinon in the mouse. de Blaquière, G.E., Waters, L., Blain, P.G., Williams, F.M. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Effects of multiple doses of organophosphates on evoked potentials in mouse diaphragm. Kelly, S.S., de Blaquière, G.E., Williams, F.M., Blain, P.G. Human & experimental toxicology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparative effectiveness of organophosphorus protoxicant activating systems in neuroblastoma cells and brain homogenates. Barber, D., Correll, L., Ehrich, M. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Electrophysiological and biochemical effects following single doses of organophosphates in the mouse. Kelly, S.S., Mutch, E., Williams, F.M., Blain, P.G. Arch. Toxicol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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