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Gene Review

PKM  -  pyruvate kinase, muscle

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CTHBP, Cytosolic thyroid hormone-binding protein, HEL-S-30, OIP-3, OIP3, ...
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Disease relevance of PKM2


Psychiatry related information on PKM2

  • We examined the potential involvement of such aberrant phosphorylation in certain aspects of the neurodegeneration accompanying Alzheimer's disease by microinjecting PKC and PKM, along with a rhodamine-conjugated dextran tracer, into undifferentiated NB2a/d1 mouse neuroblastoma cells [6].
  • Those concerning MS, PD/PKM, and dementia included a small number of disease categories [7].
  • This article describes the development and preliminary psychometric properties of the Transition Competence Battery for Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults (TCB) [8].

High impact information on PKM2

  • Rounding-up on the TCB Cytokinesis series [9].
  • Interest in apoptosis is currently growing rapidly, and previous articles in this series in TCB have described a number of recent advances in the field [10].
  • The role of various members of the kinesin superfamily in chromosome segregation and spindle morphogenesis was described in TCB last year in parts of a series on cytoplasmic motor proteins [11].
  • In addition, osteoclast-conditioned medium had no collagenolytic activity, and exogenous TCA and TCB fragments were not degraded by osteoclasts [12].
  • At the physiological T3 concentration, lowering the glucose concentration led to an increase in the cellular concentration of the cytosolic thyroid hormone binding protein [3].

Biological context of PKM2


Anatomical context of PKM2

  • Also THBP expression was found in various tumors whereas in normal tissues, its expression is restricted to the testis and, at lower levels, in ovary, liver, and spleen [16].
  • Human pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (hPKM2) is expressed in early fetal tissues and is progressively replaced by the other three isozymes, M1, R, and L, immediately after birth [13].
  • The molecular mechanisms for nongenomic actions are incompletely understood; relevant binding sites and signal transduction pathways have been described for hormone actions on plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and PKM2 monomer is known to bind T3 and, as a result, prevent activation of the kinase via tetramer formation [17].
  • Synteny of the loci for beta2-microglobulin and PKM2 in man-mouse somatic cell hybrid subclones [18].
  • Immunofluorescence staining and confocal scanning experiments showed that PanK4 could transiently co-express with Pkm2 in the cytoplasm of HeLa cell and HEK293T cell [19].

Associations of PKM2 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of PKM2

  • The following syntenic groups were observed but could not be localized: GUK1-FH and MPI-PKM2 [25].
  • RESULTS: The correlation between Tac trough levels and Tac-AUCs were r = .95 PK1; r = .82, PK2; and r = .88, PK3 [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PKM2

  • The collagenase found in lavage fluid in IPF cleaved lung collagen into collagenase-specific TCA and TCB fragments [27].
  • The first of two biochemical analyses, Western blot analysis, demonstrated that eggs activated with calcium ionophore contained PKC in the detergent-soluble fraction and PKM in the sheet enriched fraction [28].
  • CONCLUSION: Despite modern drug therapy, PKM continues to confer a sharply increased mortality on unselected patients followed for several years [29].
  • The cases with PKM had an overall mortality odds ratio of 2.5 (95% CI: 2.4, 2.6) compared with the control group [29].
  • The ability of the constitutively active fragment of protein kinase C (PKM) to modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-activated currents in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons and acutely isolated CA1 hippocampal neurons from postnatal rats was studied using patch-clamp techniques [30].


  1. Expression of hypoxia-inducible genes in tumor cells. Kress, S., Stein, A., Maurer, P., Weber, B., Reichert, J., Buchmann, A., Huppert, P., Schwarz, M. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Life-threatening nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia in a patient with a null mutation in the PKLR gene and no compensatory PKM gene expression. Diez, A., Gilsanz, F., Martinez, J., Pérez-Benavente, S., Meza, N.W., Bautista, J.M. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of thyroid hormone receptor-mediated transcription by a cytosol protein. Ashizawa, K., Cheng, S.Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of a novel serine/threonine kinase associated with nuclear bodies. Trost, M., Kochs, G., Haller, O. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. 3,4,3',4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl acts as an estrogen in vitro and in vivo. Nesaretnam, K., Corcoran, D., Dils, R.R., Darbre, P. Mol. Endocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Hyperphosphorylation of Tau and filopodial retraction following microinjection of protein kinase C catalytic subunits. Cressman, C.M., Shea, T.B. J. Neurosci. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Comorbidity was associated with neurologic and psychiatric diseases: A general practice-based controlled study. Nuyen, J., Schellevis, F.G., Satariano, W.A., Spreeuwenberg, P.M., Birkner, M.D., van den Bos, G.A., Groenewegen, P.P. Journal of clinical epidemiology (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Development and preliminary psychometric properties of the Transition Competence Battery for Deaf Adolescents and Young Adults. Bullis, M., Reiman, J. Exceptional children. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Rounding-up on the TCB Cytokinesis series. Burgess, D.R. Trends Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Neglected opportunities in apoptosis research. Kerr, J.F. Trends Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Kinesins in the spindle: an update. Epstein, H., Scholey, J.M. Trends Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolated osteoclasts resorb the organic and inorganic components of bone. Blair, H.C., Kahn, A.J., Crouch, E.C., Jeffrey, J.J., Teitelbaum, S.L. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. Structural basis for tumor pyruvate kinase M2 allosteric regulation and catalysis. Dombrauckas, J.D., Santarsiero, B.D., Mesecar, A.D. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. PK3: a new chromosome enzyme marker for gene dosage studies in chromosome 15 imbalance. Junien, C., Rubinson-Skala, H., Dreyfus, J.C., Ravise, N., Boué, J., Boué, A., Kaplan, J.C. Hum. Genet. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Isolation and characterization of the human pyruvate kinase M gene. Takenaka, M., Noguchi, T., Sadahiro, S., Hirai, H., Yamada, K., Matsuda, T., Imai, E., Tanaka, T. Eur. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of breast cancer-restricted antigens by antibody screening of SKBR3 cDNA library using a preselected patient's serum. Forti, S., Scanlan, M.J., Invernizzi, A., Castiglioni, F., Pupa, S., Agresti, R., Fontanelli, R., Morelli, D., Old, L.J., Pupa, S.M., Ménard, S. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone. Davis, P.J., Davis, F.B. Thyroid (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Synteny of the loci for beta2-microglobulin and PKM2 in man-mouse somatic cell hybrid subclones. Schacter, B., Kucherlapati, R.S., Ruddle, F.H. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. High glucose upregulates pantothenate kinase 4 (PanK4) and thus affects M2-type pyruvate kinase (Pkm2). Li, Y., Chang, Y., Zhang, L., Feng, Q., Liu, Z., Zhang, Y., Zuo, J., Meng, Y., Fang, F. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Cytosolic thyroid hormone-binding protein is a monomer of pyruvate kinase. Kato, H., Fukuda, T., Parkison, C., McPhie, P., Cheng, S.Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Pyruvate kinase hyperactivity genetically determined metabolic consequences and molecular characterization. Max-Audit, I., Rosa, R., Marie, J. Blood (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. In vivo regulation of monomer-tetramer conversion of pyruvate kinase subtype M2 by glucose is mediated via fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. Ashizawa, K., Willingham, M.C., Liang, C.M., Cheng, S.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. An in vitro novel mechanism of regulating the activity of pyruvate kinase M2 by thyroid hormone and fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate. Ashizawa, K., McPhie, P., Lin, K.H., Cheng, S.Y. Biochemistry (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Assembly regulatory domain of glial fibrillary acidic protein. A single phosphorylation diminishes its assembly-accelerating property. Nakamura, Y., Takeda, M., Aimoto, S., Hojo, H., Takao, T., Shimonishi, Y., Hariguchi, S., Nishimura, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Comparative gene mapping of man and Cebus capucinus: a study of 23 enzymatic markers. Créau-Goldberg, N., Cochet, C., Turleau, C., de Grouchy, J. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Therapeutic drug monitoring of tacrolimus in early stage after heart transplantation. Aidong, W., Zhenjie, C., Tong, L., Lei, Z., Yin, W., Shanqi, Z., Liping, T. Transplant. Proc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Collagenase in the lower respiratory tract of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Gadek, J.E., Kelman, J.A., Fells, G., Weinberger, S.E., Horwitz, A.L., Reynolds, H.Y., Fulmer, J.D., Crystal, R.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  28. Protein kinase M, the cytosolic counterpart of protein kinase C, remodels the internal cytoskeleton of the mammalian egg during activation. Gallicano, G.I., McGaughey, R.W., Capco, D.G. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Parkinsonism in Ontario: increased mortality compared with controls in a large cohort study. Guttman, M., Slaughter, P.M., Theriault, M.E., DeBoer, D.P., Naylor, C.D. Neurology (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function by constitutively active protein kinase C. Xiong, Z.G., Raouf, R., Lu, W.Y., Wang, L.Y., Orser, B.A., Dudek, E.M., Browning, M.D., MacDonald, J.F. Mol. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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