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Gene Review

SARS2  -  seryl-tRNA synthetase 2, mitochondrial

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FLJ20450, SARS, SARSM, SERS, SYS, ...
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Disease relevance of SARS2

  • Although the finding of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in caged palm civets from live animal markets in China has provided evidence for interspecies transmission in the genesis of the SARS epidemic, subsequent studies suggested that the civet may have served only as an amplification host for SARS-CoV [1].
  • In a human immunodeficiency virus type 1/SARS S coexpression study, all mutants except the 913P mutant incorporated the S(H) form into the virions as effectively as did the wild-type S(H) form [2].
  • The Sers strains, which were mucoid strains derived from patients with cystic fibrosis, had lipopolysaccharide deficient in O-antigen side chains [3].
  • The relationship among complement consumption, C3 deposition, and C3 fragmentation pattern was compared for serum-sensitive (Sers) and serum-resistant (Serr) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa [3].
  • (SYS), and 5 (all Shigella sonnei) keyed as possible S. sonnei-Y. enterocolitica-Arizona spp [4].

High impact information on SARS2

  • The self-assembled Au-imidazole complexes were generated by the adsorption of imidazole molecules onto Au nanoparticles (NP) and were then characterized as aqueous suspensions by using NIR-SERS, angle-dependent light scattering with fractal dimension analysis, and visible extinction spectroscopy [5].
  • Specifically, the Au-imidazole assemblies formed at lower imidazole concentrations had the lowest fractal dimension (D(f) = 1.2) and the largest Raman enhancement factors for the dominant NIR-SERS feature, a ring-breathing vibrational mode at 954 cm(-1) [5].
  • In addition, the antibody-conjugated SERS dots were successfully applied to the targeting of HER2 and CD10 on cellular membranes and exhibited good specificity [6].
  • Limited complement activation by Sers mucoid strains of P. aeruginosa may confer a selective survival advantage to these organisms in colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis [3].
  • The two OS of a gonococcal strain sensitive to normal human serum (NHS) bacteriolysis (sers) varied in their ability to inhibit the binding of NHS immunoglobulin M to their parental LOS [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of SARS2

  • Amino acid residues 450-650 of the spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV (S450-650) contains dominant epitopes for anti-viral antibodies (Abs) in patient sera [8].
  • Chemical batch as a factor affecting the acute toxicity of the reference toxicant potassium dichromate to the cladoceran Moina australiensis (Sars) [9].
  • Additionally, CS eNOS-Tg mice exhibited better preservation of cardiac function compared with SYS eNOS-Tg mice after myocardial infarction [10].

Biological context of SARS2

  • The seasonal variations in the total lipid content, lipid class composition, fatty acid composition, and fatty alcohol composition of Meganyctiphanes norvegica (M. Sars), Thysanoessa inermis (Krøyer), and T. raschii (M. Sars) have been examined [11].
  • Natural organic matter (NOM) induces oxidative stress in freshwater amphipods Gammarus lacustris Sars and Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton) [12].
  • The results have implications for medical and biotechnology applications of SERS nanosensors in cells [13].
  • An electron microscopic study of early developmental stages, myogenesis, oogenesis and cnidogenesis in the anthomedusa, Podocoryne carnea M. Sars [14].

Anatomical context of SARS2


Associations of SARS2 with chemical compounds

  • It showed that SARS-N has comparable detection efficiencies to SARS2 and SARS3 which are primers sets designed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In addition, SARS-S and SARS-M also demonstrated equivalent sensitivity to the commercially available RealArt HPA-Coronavirus reagents (Artus) [16].
  • Finally, while more than half of the C3 deposited on most Sers strains was in the form of C3b, most of the C3 on the Serr strains was in the form of iC3b, indicating a more rapid and extensive conversion of C3b to iC3b on the surface of these strains [3].
  • The integrin alpha6B subunit terminates with a different sequence, SYS, which may represent a new PDZ domain-binding motif [17].
  • Average coefficients of variation for SYS A were 3.4% for atropine and 5.8% for HI-6 and for SYS B1 and B2 were 5.2% for atropine and 7.0% for HI-6 determinations [18].
  • System B1 (SYS B1) and System B2 (SYS B2), with specified mixing times of 40 sec, delivered volumes of 2.3 ml containing 2.13 and 2.06 mg atropine citrate and 424 and 545 mg HI-6 dichloride, respectively [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SARS2

  • Surprisingly, however, although the Serr strains consumed more total hemolytic complement, less C3 was deposited onto the surface of these strains than onto that of the Sers strains [3].
  • Following the anthrax attacks of 2001 and the recent SARS outbreak, concerns about emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases have catalyzed a renewed interest in developing new vaccination strategies that provide rapid and flexible response options to future threats [19].
  • CONCLUSION: The S450-650-based ELISA can detect anti-S IgG Abs with high sensitivity and specificity [8].
  • In this study, we explore the use of surface-enhanced (SERS) and normal Raman spectroscopy for detecting ClO4- at low concentrations [20].
  • During SARS 1, concerns focused on the need for personal protective equipment whereas during SARS 2, concerns focused on the need for strict training and patient care protocols [21].


  1. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. Lau, S.K., Woo, P.C., Li, K.S., Huang, Y., Tsoi, H.W., Wong, B.H., Wong, S.S., Leung, S.Y., Chan, K.H., Yuen, K.Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Functional characterization of heptad repeat 1 and 2 mutants of the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Chan, W.E., Chuang, C.K., Yeh, S.H., Chang, M.S., Chen, S.S. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Complement activation and C3 binding by serum-sensitive and serum-resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Schiller, N.L., Hatch, R.A., Joiner, K.A. Infect. Immun. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Evaluation of a two-hour method for screening pathogens from stool specimens. Greene, L.C., Appelbaum, P.C., Kellogg, J.A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. In vivo detection of gold-imidazole self-assembly complexes: NIR-SERS signal reporters. Souza, G.R., Levin, C.S., Hajitou, A., Pasqualini, R., Arap, W., Miller, J.H. Anal. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Nanoparticle probes with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic tags for cellular cancer targeting. Kim, J.H., Kim, J.S., Choi, H., Lee, S.M., Jun, B.H., Yu, K.N., Kuk, E., Kim, Y.K., Jeong, D.H., Cho, M.H., Lee, Y.S. Anal. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Physical heterogeneity of neisserial lipooligosaccharides reflects oligosaccharides that differ in apparent molecular weight, chemical composition, and antigenic expression. Griffiss, J.M., O'Brien, J.P., Yamasaki, R., Williams, G.D., Rice, P.A., Schneider, H. Infect. Immun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against the spike protein of SARS-coronavirus. Zhao, J., Wang, W., Wang, G.F., Li, Y., Zhuang, H., Xu, X., Ren, F., Zhao, Z., Gao, X.M. J. Clin. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Chemical batch as a factor affecting the acute toxicity of the reference toxicant potassium dichromate to the cladoceran Moina australiensis (Sars). Krassoi, F.R., Julli, M. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of NO synthase-3 protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Elrod, J.W., Greer, J.J., Bryan, N.S., Langston, W., Szot, J.F., Gebregzlabher, H., Janssens, S., Feelisch, M., Lefer, D.J. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Lipids of North Atlantic krill. Saether, O., Ellingsen, T.E., Mohr, V. J. Lipid Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Natural organic matter (NOM) induces oxidative stress in freshwater amphipods Gammarus lacustris Sars and Gammarus tigrinus (Sexton). Timofeyev, M.A., Shatilina, Z.M., Kolesnichenko, A.V., Bedulina, D.S., Kolesnichenko, V.V., Pflugmacher, S., Steinberg, C.E. Sci. Total Environ. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. In vivo molecular probing of cellular compartments with gold nanoparticles and nanoaggregates. Kneipp, J., Kneipp, H., McLaughlin, M., Brown, D., Kneipp, K. Nano Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. An electron microscopic study of early developmental stages, myogenesis, oogenesis and cnidogenesis in the anthomedusa, Podocoryne carnea M. Sars. Boelsterli, U. J. Morphol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. The membrane systems of the cardiac muscle cell of Meganychtiphanes norvegica (m. sars), euphauciacea, crustacea. Myklebust, R. Cell Tissue Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. Rapid and sensitive detection of multiple genes from the SARS-coronavirus using quantitative RT-PCR with dual systems. Huang, J.L., Lin, H.T., Wang, Y.M., Yeh, Y.C., Peck, K., Lin, B.L., Liu, H.W., Chen, A., Lin, C.S. J. Med. Virol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. The PDZ domain of TIP-2/GIPC interacts with the C-terminus of the integrin alpha5 and alpha6 subunits. El Mourabit, H., Poinat, P., Koster, J., Sondermann, H., Wixler, V., Wegener, E., Laplantine, E., Geerts, D., Georges-Labouesse, E., Sonnenberg, A., Aumailley, M. Matrix Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Operational evaluation of three commercial configurations of atropine/HI-6 wet/dry autoinjectors. Schlager, J.W., Dolzine, T.W., Stewart, J.R., Wannarka, G.L., Shih, M.L. Pharm. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Commensal bacteria as a novel delivery system for subunit vaccines directed against agents of bioterrorism. Wilson, R.L., Hruby, D.E. Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Raman spectroscopic detection for perchlorate at low concentrations. Gu, B., Tio, J., Wang, W., Ku, Y.K., Dai, S. Applied spectroscopy. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Intubation of SARS patients: infection and perspectives of healthcare workers. Caputo, K.M., Byrick, R., Chapman, M.G., Orser, B.J., Orser, B.A. Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthésie. (2006) [Pubmed]
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