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Gene Review

Nmu  -  neuromedin U

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Neuromedin-U
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Disease relevance of Nmu


Psychiatry related information on Nmu


High impact information on Nmu


Biological context of Nmu

  • We show that behavioral effects, such as suppression of food intake, enhanced pain response, and excessive grooming induced by intracerebroventricular NMU administration were abolished in the NMUR2 knockout (KO) mice, establishing a causal role for NMUR2 in mediating NMU's central effects on these behaviors [1].
  • Furthermore, facilitated excitatory synaptic transmission in spinal dorsal horn neurons, a mechanism by which NMU stimulates pain, did not occur in NMUR2 KO mice [1].
  • Neuromedin U (NMU) is a neuropeptide involved in appetite, circadian rhythm, and pronociception [2].
  • Moreover, intraplantar injection of NMU into paws induced early inflammatory responses such as mast cell degranulation, vasodilation, and plasma extravasation in WT mice but not in WBB6F(1)-W/W(v) mice [5].
  • In a mouse Th2 cell line (D10.G4.1), a single class of high affinity saturable binding sites for (125)I-labeled NmU (K(D) 364 pM and B(max) 1114 fmol/mg protein) was identified, and mRNA encoding NmU-1R, but not NmU-2R, was present [6].

Anatomical context of Nmu


Associations of Nmu with chemical compounds

  • These findings support the hypothesized role of NmU as an endogenous anorexigenic peptide [4].
  • The plasma levels of insulin, leptin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were higher in the Nmu(-/-) than wild-type mice [8].
  • In an attempt to identify a synthetic NmU peptide that would exhibit selectivity at one of the two receptors, we examined the functional activity of eight alanine-substituted NmU-8 peptides [9].

Regulatory relationships of Nmu

  • However, the NMU receptor NMU-R1 has been shown to be expressed in immune cells and NMU promotes mast cell-dependent inflammation [2].

Other interactions of Nmu

  • In this study, we demonstrated that NMU plays an important role in IL-6 production in macrophages [2].
  • IL-6 but not TNF-alpha levels were markedly reduced in LPS-treated NMU-deficient mice compared with wild type mice [2].
  • A range of isolated organ in vitro bioassays were carried out, which were chosen to re-confirm previous literature reports (uterine and stomach fundus contraction) and also to explore potentially novel smooth muscle responses to NMU [7].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Nmu

  • These results provide significant insights into a functional dissection of the differential contribution of peripherally or centrally acting NMU system [1].
  • In situ hybridization studies revealed that NMU is expressed in several regions of the mouse hypothalamus associated with the regulation of energy balance [10].
  • Furthermore, NMU-overexpressing xenografts were associated with lower animal body weight than control tumors, indicating a possible role of NMU in cancer cachexia [11].
  • Systemic perfusion of NMU (rat, NMU-23) dose-dependently (0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2.5 microM) potentiated both the background activity and noxious pinch-evoked response of nociceptive or wide dynamic range, but not non-nociceptive, dorsal horn neurons [12].


  1. Neuromedin u receptor 2-deficient mice display differential responses in sensory perception, stress, and feeding. Zeng, H., Gragerov, A., Hohmann, J.G., Pavlova, M.N., Schimpf, B.A., Xu, H., Wu, L.J., Toyoda, H., Zhao, M.G., Rohde, A.D., Gragerova, G., Onrust, R., Bergmann, J.E., Zhuo, M., Gaitanaris, G.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. The neuropeptide neuromedin U promotes IL-6 production from macrophages and endotoxin shock. Moriyama, M., Matsukawa, A., Kudoh, S., Takahashi, T., Sato, T., Kano, T., Yoshimura, A., Kojima, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Neuromedin U has a novel anorexigenic effect independent of the leptin signaling pathway. Hanada, R., Teranishi, H., Pearson, J.T., Kurokawa, M., Hosoda, H., Fukushima, N., Fukue, Y., Serino, R., Fujihara, H., Ueta, Y., Ikawa, M., Okabe, M., Murakami, N., Shirai, M., Yoshimatsu, H., Kangawa, K., Kojima, M. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Transgenic overexpression of neuromedin U promotes leanness and hypophagia in mice. Kowalski, T.J., Spar, B.D., Markowitz, L., Maguire, M., Golovko, A., Yang, S., Farley, C., Cook, J.A., Tetzloff, G., Hoos, L., Del Vecchio, R.A., Kazdoba, T.M., McCool, M.F., Hwa, J.J., Hyde, L.A., Davis, H., Vassileva, G., Hedrick, J.A., Gustafson, E.L. J. Endocrinol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. The neuropeptide neuromedin U promotes inflammation by direct activation of mast cells. Moriyama, M., Sato, T., Inoue, H., Fukuyama, S., Teranishi, H., Kangawa, K., Kano, T., Yoshimura, A., Kojima, M. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Neuromedin U elicits cytokine release in murine Th2-type T cell clone D10.G4.1. Johnson, E.N., Appelbaum, E.R., Carpenter, D.C., Cox, R.F., Disa, J., Foley, J.J., Ghosh, S.K., Naselsky, D.P., Pullen, M.A., Sarau, H.M., Scheff, S.R., Steplewski, K.M., Zaks-Zilberman, M., Aiyar, N. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Species-dependent smooth muscle contraction to Neuromedin U and determination of the receptor subtypes mediating contraction using NMU1 receptor knockout mice. Prendergast, C.E., Morton, M.F., Figueroa, K.W., Wu, X., Shankley, N.P. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Neuromedin U--a new target in obesity. Doggrell, S.A. Expert Opin. Ther. Targets (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Cloning and characterization of murine neuromedin U receptors. Funes, S., Hedrick, J.A., Yang, S., Shan, L., Bayne, M., Monsma, F.J., Gustafson, E.L. Peptides (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Neuromedin U and Neuromedin U receptor-2 expression in the mouse and rat hypothalamus: effects of nutritional status. Graham, E.S., Turnbull, Y., Fotheringham, P., Nilaweera, K., Mercer, J.G., Morgan, P.J., Barrett, P. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Neuromedin U is regulated by the metastasis suppressor RhoGDI2 and is a novel promoter of tumor formation, lung metastasis and cancer cachexia. Wu, Y., McRoberts, K., Berr, S.S., Frierson, H.F., Conaway, M., Theodorescu, D. Oncogene (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. A pro-nociceptive role of neuromedin U in adult mice. Cao, C.Q., Yu, X.H., Dray, A., Filosa, A., Perkins, M.N. Pain (2003) [Pubmed]
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