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Gene Review

PTMA  -  prothymosin, alpha

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Prothymosin alpha, TMSA
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Disease relevance of PTMA


High impact information on PTMA


Chemical compound and disease context of PTMA


Biological context of PTMA

  • Further time course analysis of PTMA and Nip2 mRNAs levels indicated that the hormone exerted a marked biphasic regulatory effect on expression of both messages during the course of cell differentiation [11].
  • A genomic clone encoding prothymosin alpha (gene symbol: PTMA), a nuclear-targeted protein associated with cell proliferation, was isolated and the 5'-regulatory region subcloned and sequenced [12].
  • Knockdown of PTMA expression in PC3 cells by RNAi resulted in the inhibition of both cell growth and invasion in vitro [1].
  • Previous studies have shown that EBNA3C interacts with p300 and prothymosin alpha (ProTalpha) in EBV-infected cells and may be involved in recruiting acetyltransferases to the chromatin for acetylation of histones and transcriptional activation [13].
  • Analysis of the prothymosin alpha promoter and 5'-flanking region, and electrophoretic gel mobility shift studies showed the strong inducibility by the estradiol-ER complex to be mediated by two consensus half-palindromic estrogen response elements at -750 and -1051, which directly bind the ER [9].

Anatomical context of PTMA


Associations of PTMA with chemical compounds

  • In particular, PTMA was found to accumulate at both 1 and 17 hr after E2 treatment, whereas P10 product accumulated only at 1 hr [11].
  • Overall these studies underscore the importance of PTalpha in estrogen-induced breast cell proliferation [8].
  • The largest permeant ion, tetramethylammonium with a diameter of 0.55 nm, had PTMA/PNa of 0.09 [16].
  • Moreover, crystallization of the PTMA radical in presence of ethanol to form the beta phase of PTMA radical prevented the dimer formation; this resulted in the suppression of this interaction and provides further evidence of the magnetic exchange mechanism through noncovalent hydrogen bonds at long distances [17].
  • Investigation of the transmission of magnetic interactions through hydrogen bonds has been carried out for two different benzoic acid derivatives which bear either a tert-butyl nitroxide (NOA) or a poly(chloro)triphenylmethyl (PTMA) radical moiety [17].

Physical interactions of PTMA


Regulatory relationships of PTMA


Other interactions of PTMA


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PTMA

  • Radioimmunoassays specific for the N and C termini of human prothymosin alpha and the N terminus of human parathymosin alpha were employed for the measurement of the levels of alpha-thymosins in human thymus, spleen, and liver during normal growth and intestine and breast in malignant growth [7].
  • The major cross-reacting peptide in human plasma detected with a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for thymosin alpha 1 was identified as prothymosin alpha, based on its elution properties in gel-filtration chromatography and its amino acid composition after purification by HPLC [24].
  • Molecular cloning of cDNA for human prothymosin alpha [25].
  • The immunoregulatory polypeptide prothymosin alpha and its biologically active N-terminal fragment thymosin alpha 1m, with relative molecular masses of 12,500 and 3108 respectively, were found to behave as oligomers (trimers to hexamers) in gel-filtration measurements [26].
  • We demonstrate that at low pH ( approximately 3) and high concentrations, prothymosin alpha is capable of forming regular elongated fibrils with flat ribbon structure 4-5 nm in height and 12-13 nm in width as judged from scanning force and electron microscopy [27].


  1. Expression of prothymosin alpha is correlated with development and progression in human prostate cancers. Suzuki, S., Takahashi, S., Takahashi, S., Takeshita, K., Hikosaka, A., Wakita, T., Nishiyama, N., Fujita, T., Okamura, T., Shirai, T. Prostate (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Prothymosin alpha selectively enhances estrogen receptor transcriptional activity by interacting with a repressor of estrogen receptor activity. Martini, P.G., Delage-Mourroux, R., Kraichely, D.M., Katzenellenbogen, B.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Estrogen receptor alpha, a molecular switch converting transforming growth factor-alpha-mediated proliferation into differentiation in neuroblastoma cells. Ciana, P., Ghisletti, S., Mussi, P., Eberini, I., Vegeto, E., Maggi, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C and prothymosin alpha interact with the p300 transcriptional coactivator at the CH1 and CH3/HAT domains and cooperate in regulation of transcription and histone acetylation. Subramanian, C., Hasan, S., Rowe, M., Hottiger, M., Orre, R., Robertson, E.S. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Antiapoptotic function of RNA-binding protein HuR effected through prothymosin alpha. Lal, A., Kawai, T., Yang, X., Mazan-Mamczarz, K., Gorospe, M. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Regulation of apoptosis by the p8/prothymosin alpha complex. Malicet, C., Giroux, V., Vasseur, S., Dagorn, J.C., Neira, J.L., Iovanna, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression of alpha-thymosins in human tissues in normal and abnormal growth. Tsitsiloni, O.E., Stiakakis, J., Koutselinis, A., Gogas, J., Markopoulos, C., Yialouris, P., Bekris, S., Panoussopoulos, D., Kiortsis, V., Voelter, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of prothymosin alpha by estrogen receptor alpha: molecular mechanisms and relevance in estrogen-mediated breast cell growth. Bianco, N.R., Montano, M.M. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of prothymosin alpha gene expression by estrogen in estrogen receptor-containing breast cancer cells via upstream half-palindromic estrogen response element motifs. Martini, P.G., Katzenellenbogen, B.S. Endocrinology (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Binding of human prothymosin alpha to the leucine-motif/activation domains of HTLV-I Rex and HIV-1 Rev. Kubota, S., Adachi, Y., Copeland, T.D., Oroszlan, S. Eur. J. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification of estrogen-responsive genes in neuroblastoma SK-ER3 cells. Garnier, M., Di Lorenzo, D., Albertini, A., Maggi, A. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Prothymosin alpha gene in humans: organization of its promoter region and localization to chromosome 2. Szabo, P., Panneerselvam, C., Clinton, M., Frangou-Lazaridis, M., Weksler, D., Whittington, E., Macera, M.J., Grzeschik, K.H., Selvakumar, A., Horecker, B.L. Hum. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C recruits histone deacetylase activity and associates with the corepressors mSin3A and NCoR in human B-cell lines. Knight, J.S., Lan, K., Subramanian, C., Robertson, E.S. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of novel genes expressed during rhabdomyosarcoma differentiation using cDNA microarrays. Carey, K.A., Segal, D., Klein, R., Sanigorski, A., Walder, K., Collier, G.R., Cameron-Smith, D. Pathol. Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. The human prothymosin alpha gene is polymorphic and induced upon growth stimulation: evidence using a cloned cDNA. Eschenfeldt, W.H., Berger, S.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Monovalent permeability, rectification, and ionic block of store-operated calcium channels in Jurkat T lymphocytes. Kerschbaum, H.H., Cahalan, M.D. J. Gen. Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Radical para-benzoic acid derivatives: transmission of ferromagnetic interactions through hydrogen bonds at long distances. Maspoch, D., Catala, L., Gerbier, P., Ruiz-Molina, D., Vidal-Gancedo, J., Wurst, K., Rovira, C., Veciana, J. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Prothymosin alpha interacts with the CREB-binding protein and potentiates transcription. Karetsou, Z., Kretsovali, A., Murphy, C., Tsolas, O., Papamarcaki, T. EMBO Rep. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Prothymosin {alpha} Lacking the Nuclear Localization Signal as an Effective Gene Therapeutic Strategy in Collagen-Induced Arthritis. Shiau, A.L., Chen, S.Y., Chang, M.Y., Su, C.H., Chung, S.Y., Yo, Y.T., Wang, C.R., Wu, C.L. J. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Prothymosin alpha enhances interleukin 2 receptor expression in normal human T-lymphocytes. Cordero, O.J., Sarandeses, C.S., López, J.L., Cancio, E., Regueiro, B.J., Nogueira, M. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Overexpression of the oncoprotein prothymosin alpha triggers a p53 response that involves p53 acetylation. Kobayashi, T., Wang, T., Maezawa, M., Kobayashi, M., Ohnishi, S., Hatanaka, K., Hige, S., Shimizu, Y., Kato, M., Asaka, M., Tanaka, J., Imamura, M., Hasegawa, K., Tanaka, Y., Brachmann, R.K. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Nuclear distribution of prothymosin alpha and parathymosin: evidence that prothymosin alpha is associated with RNA synthesis processing and parathymosin with early DNA replication. Vareli, K., Frangou-Lazaridis, M., van der Kraan, I., Tsolas, O., van Driel, R. Exp. Cell Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Nuclear oncoprotein prothymosin alpha is a partner of Keap1: implications for expression of oxidative stress-protecting genes. Karapetian, R.N., Evstafieva, A.G., Abaeva, I.S., Chichkova, N.V., Filonov, G.S., Rubtsov, Y.P., Sukhacheva, E.A., Melnikov, S.V., Schneider, U., Wanker, E.E., Vartapetian, A.B. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Prothymosin alpha in human blood. Panneerselvam, C., Haritos, A.A., Caldarella, J., Horecker, B.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Molecular cloning of cDNA for human prothymosin alpha. Goodall, G.J., Dominguez, F., Horecker, B.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. On the molecular size of thymosins. Haritos, A.A., Yialouris, P.P., Heimer, E.P., Felix, A.M., Rosemeyer, M.A. FEBS Lett. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Amyloid fibrils from the mammalian protein prothymosin alpha. Pavlov, N.A., Cherny, D.I., Heim, G., Jovin, T.M., Subramaniam, V. FEBS Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
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