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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Methylium     carbon(+1) trihydride cation

Synonyms: carbanylium, Methyl(1+), carbon(1+), Methyl cation, carbon cation, ...
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Disease relevance of methane

  • The in vivo uptake of AFP by spontaneous carcinomas of the CH3/Bi mouse was investigated [1].
  • We compared toxicity and efficacy of a dimerized CH2/CH3 truncated IgG1-TNF fusion protein and a single-chain variable fragment-coupled TNF monomer recognizing fibroblast-activating protein [2].
  • Endonuclease V that had been modified with an average of 1.6 CH3/molecule was digested with Staphylococcus aureus strain V8 protease and the peptides subsequently separated by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography [3].
  • In the present study such properties as complement fixation, cutaneous anaphylaxis, and macrophage cytophilia were examined in relation to the CH2 and CH3 domains of rabbit IgG [4].
  • Hence, unlike the situation with the metallo-IgA1 proteases of Streptococcus spp., the sensitivity of human IgA1 to cleavage with the serine IgA1 proteases of Neisseria and Haemophilus involves their binding to different sites specifically in the CH3 domain [5].

High impact information on methane

  • FcRn binds to Fc at the interface between the Fc CH2 and CH3 domains, which contains several histidine residues that could account for the sharply pH-dependent FcRn/IgG interaction [6].
  • In the belief that the key to biological Pb(II) methylation lies in methyl transfer to Pb(II) from a carbonium ion donor (for example, S-adenosylmethionine), we recently initiated chemical and biological studies on the reactions of CH3+ donors with neutral and anionic Pb(II) compounds [7].
  • We describe an immunoadhesin molecule containing intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) molecularly fused to hinge and CH2 and CH3 domains of the human immunoglobulin G1 H chain that binds Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes [8].
  • While CH3 contributes to efficient complement activation, CH3 from IgG2 and CH3 IgG3 are equally effective [9].
  • Based on the absence of cross-reactions by IgG2a-specific monoclonal autoantibodies, certain peptides of the IgG CH2 and CH3 domains appear to generate the antigenic determinants of the anti-IgG2a RF in MRL/l mice [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of methane

  • Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C and prothymosin alpha interact with the p300 transcriptional coactivator at the CH1 and CH3/HAT domains and cooperate in regulation of transcription and histone acetylation [11].
  • Evaluation of neurite outgrowth by neuroblastoma cells on these substrata revealed both qualitative and quantitative differences as follows: [Diol] = [COOH] greater than [SiOH] much greater than [CN] = [Br] greater than [CH3] = [C = C] [12].
  • The potency of L-dioxolane uracil nucleosides against EBV replication is dependent on the substituents at the 5-position in the following decreasing order: I > Br > Cl > CH3 > CF3 > F [13].
  • Of this group, 4a (R = CH3) and 5a (R = CH3) showed the most favorable pharmacological profiles; the former compound was chosen for toxicity testing over the latter due to its lack of noncompetitive inhibition of acetylcholine-induced contractions of guinea pig ileum segments [14].
  • Conditions are described for the detection of tuberculostearic acid (10-methyloctadecanoate; C18 X CH3) in cerebrospinal fluid and serum of patients with tuberculous meningitis [15].

Biological context of methane

  • Nucleotide sequencing and restriction enzyme mapping show that the CH1, hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains are present as distinct genetic elements separated by short intervening sequences in these genes: the gamma 3 gene is unique amongst these genes in that it possesses four separate hinge-coding segments [16].
  • Strains carrying the Rnrb allele, such as BALB/c or C57 Bl/6, or CH3 mice, have one renin structural gene per haploid genome, while those having the Rnrs allele, such as AKR or Swiss mice, have two renin genes [17].
  • Partial nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated that the cloned cDNA contained the coding region for about two-thirds of the CH2 and all of the CH3 and CH4 domains as well as the 3'-untranslated region [18].
  • That the amyloid protein contained an intact CH3 domain was established through amino acid sequence analyses of cyanogen bromide fragments and peptides generated by a lysine-specific protease [19].
  • Imposition of a membrane potential (negative inside) also increased the intensity of Raman scattering in the CH3-stretching region [20].

Anatomical context of methane

  • We have engineered chimeric proteins, containing the extracellular domains of the mouse V gamma 1.1-C gamma 4 and V delta 6.2-C delta (V, variable; C, constant) TCR chains fused to the hinge region, CH2 (H, heavy), and CH3 domains of human IgG1 heavy chain, and expressed them by transient transfection in COS cells [21].
  • Thin-layer chromatography confirmed that a dynamic and/or compositional change of the plasma membrane, rather than increases in lipase activity or fatty acid production, appears to account for the increase in the CH2/CH3 signal intensity ratio during apoptosis [22].
  • Similarly, the low-affinity Fc gamma RII on resting B cells has one site for CH2 and another for CH3 binding [23].
  • Recently, we reported that LFA3TIP, a fusion protein comprised of the first LFA-3 extracellular domain fused to the hinge, CH2, and CH3 regions of a human IgG1 inhibits proliferation of human T cells in vitro [24].
  • The tetravalent MAbs containing both the CH2 and CH3 domains and a chimeric recombinant divalent antibody bound similarly to Fc receptor, C1q, and mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity equally well with human natural killer cells [25].

Associations of methane with other chemical compounds

  • The nucleotide sequence of p2a2 showed that it encodes the COOH-terminal eight amino acids of the CH1 domain, the hinge region, the CH2 domain, and the NH2-terminal half of the CH3 domain of C gamma [26].
  • When carboxyl-methylated calcineurin (approximately 1-2 mol of CH3 per mol of protein) was assayed for p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity at pH 6.5, a marked inhibition of calmodulin-stimulated activity was observed while there was little effect on Mn2+-stimulated phosphatase activity [27].
  • The cryoglobulin activity of the IgG3 6-19 mutant bearing more negatively charged residues at VH 6 and 23 was found to be reduced but still highly significant, whereas that of the mutant lacking a potential CH3 glycosylation site remained unchanged [28].
  • In our studies, phenolphthalein administered continuously in the feed for 2 years to F344 rats at doses of 0, 12,500, 25,000, and 50,000 ppm and to C57BL/6 x CH3 F1 (hereafter called B6C3F1) mice at doses of 0, 3,000, 6,000, and 12,000 ppm caused multiple carcinogenic effects [29].
  • Pyrimidine dimer-specific binding was not eradicated at a level of methylation equivalent to 0.8 CH3/endonuclease V molecule but was eradicated at higher levels of methylation [3].

Gene context of methane

  • Protein-protein interaction assays demonstrated the association of Notch-1-IC and the CH3 region of p300 [30].
  • In agreement, we show that the common transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP) interacts with AIRE in vitro and in yeast nuclei through the CH1 and CH3 conserved domains [31].
  • We used a recombinant soluble form of Crry fused to the hinge, CH2, and CH3 domains of mouse IgG1 (Crry-Ig) to determine whether inhibition of complement activation prevents and/or reverses mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury in mice [32].
  • The molecule with IGF1 attached after CH3 (CH3-IGF1) had reduced ability to carry out complement-mediated cytolysis [33].
  • In contrast the molecule with IGF2 attached after CH3 (CH3-IGF2) showed an approximately 50-fold increase in its ability to effect complement-mediated cytolysis and so should be an effective cytolytic agent [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of methane

  • A peptide consisting of 10 amino acids derived from the CH3 region of human IgG was shown to bind to monocytes and to inhibit rosette formation of antibody-coated erythrocytes with human monocytes [34].
  • There was also a direct temporal relationship between an increase in the CH2/CH3 signal intensity ratio and the onset of apoptosis as detected by nuclear morphologic analysis, fluorescein-annexin V flow cytometry, and DNA gel electrophoresis [22].
  • The steady state levels of isotype-specific mRNA were assessed by Northern blot analysis with gamma-specific CH3 probes [35].
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy data also suggest that the F ligand is a strong donor (relative to H and CH3) in [Fe*]X*+ [36].
  • Using the "Comet assay" to detect genetic damage, we found that L. bulgaricus 191R applied orally to rats could prevent 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced DNA breaks in the colon in vivo, whereas St. thermophilus CH3 were not effective [37].


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