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Gene Review

PORCN  -  porcupine homolog (Drosophila)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: DHOF, FODH, MG61, PORC, PPN, ...
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Disease relevance of PORCN

  • The por A gene, which encodes expression of meningococcal class 1 outer membrane protein, responsible for antigenic subtype specificity, has been cloned and sequenced in an isolate of Neisseria meningitidis (B:15:P1.7,16) from a patient in the Gloucester area with meningococcal meningitis [1].
  • The isolate therefore appears to be a typical meningococcus, except that its porB gene has been replaced with the por gene from a gonococcus [2].
  • Therapy often fails when the underlying disorder cannot be corrected, but por pruritus associated with chronic renal failure or hepatic cholestasis, specific and usually effective treatments exist [3].
  • Quinolone resistance-determining region mutations and por type of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates: resistance surveillance and typing by molecular methodologies [4].
  • In a series of 45 poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas (por) and 7 signet-ring-cell carcinomas (sig) of the colorectum, K-ras gene mutation, p53 immunostaining and microsatellite instability (MSI) were analyzed for a comparison with 46 cases of colorectal carcinomas of the well or moderately differentiated type (well/mod) [5].

Psychiatry related information on PORCN

  • Mujeres felices por ser saludables: a breast cancer risk reduction program for Latino women [6].
  • PURPOSE: Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables was randomized intervention study designed to assess the efficacy of an 8-month combined dietary and breast health intervention to reduce fat and increase fiber intake as well as to increase the frequency and proficiency of breast self-examination (BSE) and reduce anxiety related to BSE among Latinas [7].

High impact information on PORCN

  • Point mutation in meningococcal por A gene associated with increased endemic disease [1].
  • The low-complexity "gene-sized" linear DNA duplexes of the Oxytricha macronucleus sport short inverted terminal repeats; thus, each single strand is capable of forming a circle held together by a duplex "neck" [Wesley, R. D. (1975) Porc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 72, 678--682] [8].
  • QRDR sequencing and por type determination showed that the outbreak of CipR N. gonorrhoeae in Israel was clonal [4].
  • PIA strains (n=63) showed limited por diversity, with 90% having 1 of 4 por types [9].
  • Frameshift mutation of the T beta R-II gene was detected in 27.5% of the por and none of the sig specimens, while corresponding figures for mutation of the BAX gene were 15.7% and 0% [5].

Biological context of PORCN

  • Like its mouse and Xenopus homologues, MG61/PORC encodes four protein isoforms (A-D) generated through alternative splicing and expressed in a tissue-specific fashion [10].
  • The human Porcupine locus (MG61/PORC) spans 15 exons over approximately 12 kb of genomic sequence on Xp11.23 [10].
  • Therefore, greening and initial differentiation of photosynthetic tissues during somatic embryogenesis seem to be associated with coordinated expression of mRNA for rbcL, Lhcb and por in late torpedo-shaped embryos [11].
  • However, por mosaicism appeared to be more frequent among core group-derived strains, suggesting that recombination of different por sequences may be a important strategy by which N. gonorrhoeae generates por gene diversity within core group populations [12].
  • Genetic diversity and mosaicism at the por locus of Neisseria gonorrhoeae [12].

Anatomical context of PORCN

  • Mouse and Xenopus homologs of porc (Mporc and Xporc) were identified and found to encode endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteins with multiple transmembrane domains [13].
  • A computational model of the basal ganglia (BG) is proposed for simulating the effects of the internal globus pallidus (GPi)-pedunculopontine (PPN) loop activity on the transmission of the STN-GPe-pacemaker oscillatory activities to the cortex, based on known anatomy and physiology of the BG [14].
  • Out of 18 patients with a benign IgM gammopathy and associated demyelinating polyneuropathy (PPN), 17 showed binding to the surface of specific neurons, i.e. those of the deep cerebellar nuclei and the intermediate cell of Lugaro [15].
  • Despite the behavioural recovery, [14C]-2DG uptake remained elevated in the target areas for medial pallidal output (the thalamic nuclei and PPN) [16].
  • PPN can inhibit HBV-DNA expression and duplication in vitro, and has no cytotoxicity to liver cells [17].

Associations of PORCN with chemical compounds

  • Coupling reactions of CO2 with neat epoxides catalyzed by PPN salts to yield cyclic carbonates [18].
  • Exposure of acetonitrile/methanol solutions of [PPN][Ru(DPPBT)3] [PPN = bis(triphenylphosphoranylidene); DPPBT = 2-diphenylphosphinobenzene thiolate] to oxygen initiates metal-centered oxidation, yielding the ruthenium(III) thiolate Ru(DPPBT)3 [19].
  • One-electron oxidation of 2(2)(-) by ceric(IV) ammonium nitrate affords the blue, air-stable radical [hypercloso-B(12)Me(12)](*-), dodecamethyl-hypercloso-dodecaborate(1-), 2(*-), isolated as the PPN salt [20].
  • The gold(I) thiolate complexes [Au(2-SC6H4NH2)(PPh3)] (1), [PPN][Au(2-SC6H4NH2)2] (2) (PPN = PPh3=N=PPh3), and [{Au(2-SC6H4NH2)}2(mu-dppm)] (3) (dppm = PPh2CH2PPh2) have been prepared by reaction of acetylacetonato gold(I) precursors with 2-aminobenzenethiol in the appropriate molar ratio [21].
  • Ambient concentrations of PAN (R = CH3) and PPN (R = C2H5) have been measured during summer 1997 at two southern California locations, Azusa (July 14-October 16) and Simi Valley (June 18-October 16) [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PORCN

  • Although serotyping has been a useful tool, this method can be insensitive to critical sequence changes in the por gene, including those in surface-exposed variable regions (VRs) [23].
  • Sequence analysis of por genes revealed evidence of horizontal genetic exchange and point mutations in potential surface-exposed regions during passage in the community [24].
  • PIB VR typing avoids limited monoclonal antibody availability, interlaboratory variation, and the requirement for culture-based surveillance associated with gonococcal serotyping, and provides useful information about the molecular epidemiology of individual por gene VRs [23].
  • We have developed a typing method based on DNA sequencing of two overlapping por gene fragments generated by a heminested PCR [25].
  • In this report, we further document this progressive cholinergic denervation in Otolemur which involves first projections of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN, CH5-6) and later projections of CH1-4 cholinergic nuclei, as well as other noncholinergic pathways [26].


  1. Point mutation in meningococcal por A gene associated with increased endemic disease. McGuinness, B.T., Clarke, I.N., Lambden, P.R., Barlow, A.K., Poolman, J.T., Jones, D.M., Heckels, J.E. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Interspecies recombination in nature: a meningococcus that has acquired a gonococcal PIB porin. Vázquez, J.A., Berrón, S., O'Rourke, M., Carpenter, G., Feil, E., Smith, N.H., Spratt, B.G. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Pruritus: pathogenesis, therapy, and significance in systemic disease states. Gilchrest, B.A. Arch. Intern. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  4. Quinolone resistance-determining region mutations and por type of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates: resistance surveillance and typing by molecular methodologies. Giles, J.A., Falconio, J., Yuenger, J.D., Zenilman, J.M., Dan, M., Bash, M.C. J. Infect. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular characteristics of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and signet-ring-cell carcinoma of colorectum. Kawabata, Y., Tomita, N., Monden, T., Ohue, M., Ohnishi, T., Sasaki, M., Sekimoto, M., Sakita, I., Tamaki, Y., Takahashi, J., Yagyu, T., Mishima, H., Kikkawa, N., Monden, M. Int. J. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Mujeres felices por ser saludables: a breast cancer risk reduction program for Latino women. Fitzgibbon, M.L., Gapstur, S.M., Knight, S.J. Preventive medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Results of Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables: a dietary/breast health randomized clinical trial for Latino women. Fitzgibbon, M.L., Gapstur, S.M., Knight, S.J. Annals of behavioral medicine : a publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation and characterization of a highly repetitious inverted terminal repeat sequence from Oxytricha macronuclear DNA. Herrick, G., Wesley, R.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  9. Porin variation among clinical isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae over a 10-year period, as determined by Por variable region typing. McKnew, D.L., Lynn, F., Zenilman, J.M., Bash, M.C. J. Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular cloning and initial characterization of the MG61/PORC gene, the human homologue of the Drosophila segment polarity gene Porcupine. Caricasole, A., Ferraro, T., Rimland, J.M., Terstappen, G.C. Gene (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of photosynthesis-related genes and their regulation by light during somatic embryogenesis in Daucus carota. Sato-Nara, K., Demura, T., Fukuda, H. Planta (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Genetic diversity and mosaicism at the por locus of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Fudyk, T.C., Maclean, I.W., Simonsen, J.N., Njagi, E.N., Kimani, J., Brunham, R.C., Plummer, F.A. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. The evolutionarily conserved porcupine gene family is involved in the processing of the Wnt family. Tanaka, K., Okabayashi, K., Asashima, M., Perrimon, N., Kadowaki, T. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of the activity of the internal globus pallidus-pedunculopontine loop on the transmission of the subthalamic nucleus-external globus pallidus-pacemaker oscillatory activities to the cortex. Niktarash, A.H., Shahidi, G.A. Journal of computational neuroscience. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. The binding of human IgM paraprotein from cases of polyneuropathy associated with benign monoclonal gammopathy to specific neurons of the rodent brain. Denton, C.P., Gregson, N.A., Leibowitz, S., Kennedy, M. Brain Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Short and long-term changes in cerebral [14C]-2-deoxyglucose uptake in the MPTP-treated marmoset: relationship to locomotor activity. Gnanalingham, K.K., Milkowski, N.A., Smith, L.A., Hunter, A.J., Jenner, P., Marsden, C.D. J. Neural Transm. Gen. Sect. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Extraction of protoporphyrin disodium and its inhibitory effects on HBV-DNA. Li, C.P., Xu, L.F., Liu, Q.H., Zhang, C., Wang, J., Zhu, Y.X. World J. Gastroenterol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Coupling reactions of CO2 with neat epoxides catalyzed by PPN salts to yield cyclic carbonates. Sit, W.N., Ng, S.M., Kwong, K.Y., Lau, C.P. J. Org. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Oxygenation of a ruthenium(II) thiolate to a ruthenium(II) sulfinate proceeds via ruthenium(III). Grapperhaus, C.A., Poturovic, S., Mashuta, M.S. Inorganic chemistry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Dodecamethyl-closo-dodecaborate(2-). Peymann, T., Knobler, C.B., Khan, S.I., Hawthorne, M.F. Inorganic chemistry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Synthesis, structural characterization, and theoretical studies of gold(I) and gold(I)-gold(III) thiolate complexes: quenching of gold(I) thiolate luminescence. Bardají, M., Calhorda, M.J., Costa, P.J., Jones, P.G., Laguna, A., Reyes Pérez, M., Villacampa, M.D. Inorganic chemistry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Peroxyacetyl nitrate and peroxypropionyl nitrate during SCOS 97-NARSTO. Grosjean, E., Grosjean, D., Woodhouse, L.F. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. A typing system for neisseria gonorrhoeae based on biotinylated oligonucleotide probes to PIB gene variable regions. Thompson, D.K., Deal, C.D., Ison, C.A., Zenilman, J.M., Bash, M.C. J. Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae causing repeated infections: evolution of porin during passage within a community. Hobbs, M.M., Alcorn, T.M., Davis, R.H., Fischer, W., Thomas, J.C., Martin, I., Ison, C., Sparling, P.F., Cohen, M.S. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Comparison of sequencing of the por gene and typing of the opa gene for discrimination of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains from sexual contacts. Viscidi, R.P., Demma, J.C., Gu, J., Zenilman, J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Cholinergic axonal dystrophy and mitochondrial pathology in prosimian primates. Schmechel, D.E., Burkhart, D.S., Ange, R., Izard, M.K. Exp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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