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Gene Review

STIL  -  SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: MCPH7, SCL-interrupting locus protein, SIL, TAL-1-interrupting locus protein
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Disease relevance of STIL

  • Structural characterization of SIL, a gene frequently disrupted in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia [1].
  • Once CR was obtained, cumulative relapse rates were similar for IM, pre-alphabeta, and TCR+ T-ALL patients (P = .51), but were higher in HOX11L2 (83%) and SIL-TAL1 (82%) T-ALL patients compared with other genetic subgroups (48%; P = .05) [2].
  • Since the RT-PCR assay suggested that SIL mRNA expression was higher in rapidly proliferating tissues, we assayed SIL mRNA expression using a murine erythroleukemia model of terminal differentiation and found it to be dramatically decreased in conjunction with terminal differentiation [3].
  • The genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and analysis of SIL as a candidate gene for holoprosencephaly [4].
  • Urinary bladder tumours developed in four of the fourteen patients (three squamous-cell carcinoma in patients stil on dialysis, one poorly differentiated transitional-cell carcinoma in a patient after successful transplantation) [5].

Psychiatry related information on STIL


High impact information on STIL

  • SIL is an immediate-early gene that is essential for embryonic development and is implicated in T-cell leukemia-associated translocations [8].
  • Patients with HOX11-high expression and those with SIL-TAL fusion had low levels of residual disease at the end of induction and a favorable prognosis: the 3-year EFS rate was 83.3% (+/- 8.5%) and 75.3% (+/- 12.6%), respectively [9].
  • Recently, we have described a nonrandom, site-specific SCL rearrangement in several T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines that juxtaposes SCL with a distinct transcribed locus, SIL [10].
  • We did not detect the SIL/SCL rearrangement in the leukemic blasts from 30 patients with B-cell precursor ALL, indicating that the rearrangement was specific for T-cell ALL [10].
  • Abnormalities of the gene occur rarely by chromosomal translocation into the T-cell receptor (TCR) delta locus and commonly by a site-specific 95-kb deletion, SIL-SCL (tald) [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of STIL

  • SCL mRNA, driven by a cloned SIL promoter, could be downregulated by DMSO in stably transfected F4-6 murine erythroleukemia cells [12].
  • The wound infection rates for the treatment groups were: BAC, six of 109 (5.5%); NEO, five of 110 (4.5%); SIL, 12 of 99 (12.1%); and PTR, 19 of 108 (17.6%) (p = 0.0034) [13].

Biological context of STIL


Anatomical context of STIL

  • We have now cloned a normal SIL cDNA from a cell line which does not carry the rearrangement [1].
  • The interstitial deletion at 1p32 involving SIL (SCL-interrupting locus)/SCL (stem cell leukemia) is a case involving two non-V(D)J sites that have been suggested to be V(D)J recombination mistakes [15].
  • SIL is induced within 1 h of stimulation by 20% serum in growth-arrested 3T3 cells [14].
  • Upon release from serum starvation of 3T3 fibroblasts, SIL mRNA and protein levels display a biphasic pattern during the first cell cycle [14].
  • The E7 region aa 70-98 was the most immunogenic in patients with squamous intraepithelial lesions of the cervix (SIL) but the responses detected were not significantly higher than in patients without SIL [16].

Associations of STIL with chemical compounds

  • Using acetonitrile and Bond Elut extraction, fractionation on Sep-Pak SIL cartridges, and derivatization as dimethylethylsilyl ether methyl esters, the capillary gas-liquid chromatography of intact glycine-conjugated bile acids from human plasma was demonstrated for the first time [17].
  • Phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin) is stil the most important anticonvulsant and the one for which kinetics have been thoroughly investigated in man [18].
  • Comparison of the PCOOH concentration in each participant's plasma as determined by use of a Finepak SIL NH2 column with 2-propanol/methanol/water as the mobile phase (system A, the conventional method) gave a higher concentration than did an LC-18-DB column with methanol containing 0.01% triethylamine (system B) [19].
  • The role of specific isoforms in the conversion of SIL to its primary circulating metabolite, UK-103,320 (piperazine N-desmethyl sildenafil) in the mouse was also investigated using immunoinhibitory antibodies [6].
  • Less severe but stil significant suppression was found in the presence of chloramphenicol, clindamycin, tetracycline, and ascorbic acid alone [20].

Other interactions of STIL

  • Short-term changes in sedentary behaviour during adolescence: Project STIL (Sedentary Teenagers and Inactive Lifestyles) [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of STIL


  1. Structural characterization of SIL, a gene frequently disrupted in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Aplan, P.D., Lombardi, D.P., Kirsch, I.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Impact of TCR status and genotype on outcome in adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a LALA-94 study. Asnafi, V., Buzyn, A., Thomas, X., Huguet, F., Vey, N., Boiron, J.M., Reman, O., Cayuela, J.M., Lheritier, V., Vernant, J.P., Fiere, D., Macintyre, E., Dombret, H. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning and characterization of a murine SIL gene. Collazo-Garcia, N., Scherer, P., Aplan, P.D. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. The genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and analysis of SIL as a candidate gene for holoprosencephaly. Karkera, J.D., Izraeli, S., Roessler, E., Dutra, A., Kirsch, I., Muenke, M. Cytogenet. Genome Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Bladder tumours in paraplegic patients on renal replacement therapy. Yaqoob, M., McClelland, P., Bell, G.M., Ahmad, R., Bakran, A. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. The effect of age on sildenafil biotransformation in rat and mouse liver microsomes. Warrington, J.S., von Moltke, L.L., Harmatz, J.S., Shader, R.I., Greenblatt, D.J. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Psychosocial stress and cervical neoplasia risk. Coker, A.L., Bond, S., Madeleine, M.M., Luchok, K., Pirisi, L. Psychosomatic medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Sil phosphorylation in a Pin1 binding domain affects the duration of the spindle checkpoint. Campaner, S., Kaldis, P., Izraeli, S., Kirsch, I.R. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Clinical significance of HOX11L2 expression linked to t(5;14)(q35;q32), of HOX11 expression, and of SIL-TAL fusion in childhood T-cell malignancies: results of EORTC studies 58881 and 58951. Cavé, H., Suciu, S., Preudhomme, C., Poppe, B., Robert, A., Uyttebroeck, A., Malet, M., Boutard, P., Benoit, Y., Mauvieux, L., Lutz, P., Méchinaud, F., Grardel, N., Mazingue, F., Dupont, M., Margueritte, G., Pages, M.P., Bertrand, Y., Plouvier, E., Brunie, G., Bastard, C., Plantaz, D., Vande Velde, I., Hagemeijer, A., Speleman, F., Lessard, M., Otten, J., Vilmer, E., Dastugue, N. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Involvement of the putative hematopoietic transcription factor SCL in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Aplan, P.D., Lombardi, D.P., Reaman, G.H., Sather, H.N., Hammond, G.D., Kirsch, I.R. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Disruption of the SCL locus in T-lymphoid malignancies correlates with commitment to the T-cell receptor alpha beta lineage. Macintyre, E.A., Smit, L., Ritz, J., Kirsch, I.R., Strominger, J.L. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Cloning and characterization of the SIL promoter. Colaizzo-Anas, T., Aplan, P.D. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Prospective evaluation of topical antibiotics for preventing infections in uncomplicated soft-tissue wounds repaired in the ED. Dire, D.J., Coppola, M., Dwyer, D.A., Lorette, J.J., Karr, J.L. Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of the SIL gene is correlated with growth induction and cellular proliferation. Izraeli, S., Colaizzo-Anas, T., Bertness, V.L., Mani, K., Aplan, P.D., Kirsch, I.R. Cell Growth Differ. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Analysis of the V(D)J recombination efficiency at lymphoid chromosomal translocation breakpoints. Raghavan, S.C., Kirsch, I.R., Lieber, M.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Human papillomavirus type 16-specific T cell responses and their association with recurrence of cervical disease following treatment. Luxton, J.C., Nath, R., Derias, N., Herbert, A., Shepherd, P.S. J. Gen. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Capillary gas-liquid chromatography of glycine-conjugated bile acids without prior hydrolysis. Street, J.M., Trafford, D.J., Makin, H.L. J. Lipid Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Clinical pharmacokinetics of anticonvulsants. Hvidberg, E.F., Dam, M. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide levels in human plasma are lower than previously reported. Adachi, J., Yoshioka, N., Funae, R., Nagasaki, Y., Naito, T., Ueno, Y. Lipids (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. The effect of antibiotics on cell-mediated immunity. Munster, A.M., Loadholdt, C.B., Leary, A.G., Barnes, M.A. Surgery (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Short-term changes in sedentary behaviour during adolescence: Project STIL (Sedentary Teenagers and Inactive Lifestyles). Murdey, I.D., Cameron, N., Biddle, S.J., Marshall, S.J., Gorely, T. Ann. Hum. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. SIL-TAL1 deletion in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Janssen, J.W., Ludwig, W.D., Sterry, W., Bartram, C.R. Leukemia (1993) [Pubmed]
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