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Gene Review

TNNC1  -  troponin C type 1 (slow)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CMD1Z, CMH13, TN-C, TNC, TNNC, ...
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Disease relevance of TNNC1

  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C (TN-C) is overexpressed in lung fibroblasts from systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, the molecular mechanisms regulating TN-C secretion in SSc and normal lung fibroblasts, and how these processes might contribute to lung fibrosis in SSc patients [1].
  • These data suggest that TN-C reflects disease activity in cases of human myocarditis [2].
  • Furthermore, serial biopsies from 22 patients were taken during convalescence, and sequential changes in TN-C levels were analysed [2].
  • Here, we examined expression of TN-C variants and types of alternatively spliced fibronectin-type III (FNIII) repeats in chronic hepatitis [3].
  • Both serum levels of IL-13 and the expression levels of TN-C in the dermis are increased in patients with systemic sclerosis [4].

High impact information on TNNC1

  • In addition, cultured macrophages have the capacity to express the TN-C gene [5].
  • To identify the cellular source of TN-C, the plaques were stained with smooth muscle cell- and macrophage-specific antibodies [5].
  • In contrast, the inhibitory effect of TN-C on T lymphocyte activation remains unaffected [6].
  • These three EBSs bind in vitro expressed Fli1 protein and mediate transactivation of the TN-C gene by Fli1 [7].
  • To better understand the mechanisms that control TN-C gene expression, we examined the regulation of the human TN-C promoter in human fibroblasts [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of TNNC1


Biological context of TNNC1


Anatomical context of TNNC1

  • Consistent with the idea that thrombin is a physiologic inducer of TN-C, thrombin stimulated TN-C mRNA and protein expression in both SSc and normal lung fibroblasts by a mechanism that required proteolytic cleavage of the thrombin receptor [1].
  • A tumour invasion model, in which established bladder cancer cell lines were seeded onto a normal bladder stroma, corroborated the evidence from the clinical specimens and demonstrated that TN-C was strongly expressed around foci of stromal invasion [13].
  • TN-C was not expressed in neoplastic urothelium, although both TN-C and TGFbeta-1 may be involved in tissue remodelling during papillary tumour formation and invasion [13].
  • Major TN-C variants in PBK-ABK corneas were in the range of 190 kDa to 240 kDa [14].
  • Our findings suggest that astrocytes grown on TN-C revert to a quiescent, nonactivated state that is partially reversible [15].

Associations of TNNC1 with chemical compounds

  • Significantly fewer astrocytes expressed scar properties when grown on tenascin-C (TN-C) than those cultured on other ECM proteins or poly-L-lysine-coated dishes [15].
  • Integrin alphavbeta6 co-localized in the same area as TN-C and TN-C(L) immunoreactivity at the cell-cell contacts of the basal and suprabasal cell layers of the wound epithelium [16].
  • By receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, TN-C levels clearly discriminated prediction of LV remodeling and MACE compared with other variables including plasma B-type natriuretic peptide, creatine kinase-MB, and LV function [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TNNC1


  1. Depletion of protein kinase Cepsilon in normal and scleroderma lung fibroblasts has opposite effects on tenascin expression. Tourkina, E., Hoffman, S., Fenton, J.W., Lipsitz, S., Silver, R.M., Ludwicka-Bradley, A. Arthritis Rheum. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Diagnostic utility of tenascin-C for evaluation of the activity of human acute myocarditis. Morimoto, S., Imanaka-Yoshida, K., Hiramitsu, S., Kato, S., Ohtsuki, M., Uemura, A., Kato, Y., Nishikawa, T., Toyozaki, T., Hishida, H., Yoshida, T., Hiroe, M. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Expression of large tenascin-C splice variants by hepatic stellate cells/myofibroblasts in chronic hepatitis C. El-Karef, A., Kaito, M., Tanaka, H., Ikeda, K., Nishioka, T., Fujita, N., Inada, H., Adachi, Y., Kawada, N., Nakajima, Y., Imanaka-Yoshida, K., Yoshida, T. J. Hepatol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Upregulation of tenascin-C expression by IL-13 in human dermal fibroblasts via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and the protein kinase C signaling pathways. Jinnin, M., Ihn, H., Asano, Y., Yamane, K., Trojanowska, M., Tamaki, K. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Tenascin-C is expressed in macrophage-rich human coronary atherosclerotic plaque. Wallner, K., Li, C., Shah, P.K., Fishbein, M.C., Forrester, J.S., Kaul, S., Sharifi, B.G. Circulation (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Plasmin-induced proteolysis of tenascin-C: modulation by T lymphocyte-derived urokinase-type plasminogen activator and effect on T lymphocyte adhesion, activation, and cell clustering. Gundersen, D., Trân-Thang, C., Sordat, B., Mourali, F., Rüegg, C. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Ets transcription factors cooperate with Sp1 to activate the human tenascin-C promoter. Shirasaki, F., Makhluf, H.A., LeRoy, C., Watson, D.K., Trojanowska, M. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Rapid increase in plasma tenascin-C concentration after isolated limb perfusion with high-dose tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interferon gamma (IFN gamma) and melphalan for regionally advanced tumors. Schienk, S., Liénard, D., Gerain, J., Baumgartner, M., Lejeune, F.J., Chiquet-Ehrismann, R., Rüegg, C. Int. J. Cancer (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Involvement of tenascin-C in proliferation and migration of laryngeal carcinoma cells. Yoshida, T., Yoshimura, E., Numata, H., Sakakura, Y., Sakakura, T. Virchows Arch. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Assignment of the human slow twitch skeletal muscle/cardiac troponin C gene (TNNC1) to human chromosome 3p21.3-->3p14.3 using somatic cell hybrids. Song, W.J., Van Keuren, M.L., Drabkin, H.A., Cypser, J.R., Gemmill, R.M., Kurnit, D.M. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. The amino acid sequence of human cardiac troponin-C. Roher, A., Lieska, N., Spitz, W. Muscle Nerve (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Mapping TNNC1, the gene that encodes cardiac troponin I in the human and the mouse. Bermingham, N., Hernandez, D., Balfour, A., Gilmour, F., Martin, J.E., Fisher, E.M. Genomics (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Towards defining roles and relationships for tenascin-C and TGFbeta-1 in the normal and neoplastic urinary bladder. Booth, C., Harnden, P., Selby, P.J., Southgate, J. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of tenascin-C splice variants in normal and bullous keratopathy human corneas. Ljubimov, A.V., Saghizadeh, M., Spirin, K.S., Khin, H.L., Lewin, S.L., Zardi, L., Bourdon, M.A., Kenney, M.C. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Tenascin C induces a quiescent phenotype in cultured adult human astrocytes. Holley, J.E., Gveric, D., Whatmore, J.L., Gutowski, N.J. Glia (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Immunolocalization of tenascin-C, alpha9 integrin subunit, and alphavbeta6 integrin during wound healing in human oral mucosa. Häkkinen, L., Hildebrand, H.C., Berndt, A., Kosmehl, H., Larjava, H. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Serum tenascin-C might be a novel predictor of left ventricular remodeling and prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. Sato, A., Aonuma, K., Imanaka-Yoshida, K., Yoshida, T., Isobe, M., Kawase, D., Kinoshita, N., Yazaki, Y., Hiroe, M. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Assignment of the human cardiac/slow skeletal muscle troponin C gene (TNNC1) between D3S3118 and GCT4B10 on the short arm of chromosome 3 by somatic cell hybrid analysis. Townsend, P.J., Yacoub, M.H., Barton, P.J. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of tenascin-C in various human brain tumors and its relevance for survival in patients with astrocytoma. Leins, A., Riva, P., Lindstedt, R., Davidoff, M.S., Mehraein, P., Weis, S. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
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