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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Convalescence

  • XLP survivors exhibited normal levels of circulating EBV-DNA during convalescence, suggesting that SH2D1A protein is not directly responsible for control of EBV replication [1].
  • Operative resection is the most effective single means to eradicate mediastinal parathyroid adenoma; however, angiographic ablation can provide similar long-term control of hyperparathyroidism in 63% of patients with less pain and shorter convalescence than that seen in patients after median sternotomy [2].
  • By this method antibody to the receptor was detected in serum in a goat immunized with pre-S containing particles, with no relation to levels of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen, and in the sera of 33% and 83%, respectively, of acute hepatitis B patients studied during the early phase of illness and during convalescence [3].
  • Supernatants obtained during recrudescence, but not those obtained during convalescence, quiescence, or from seropositive controls, failed to augment natural killer activity but contained interferon and interleukin-2 [4].
  • Significantly high levels of immunoglobulin E in the acute sera of encephalitis cases (suspected or confirmed as Japanese encephalitis) declined sharply during early convalescence [5].

High impact information on Convalescence

  • In normal individuals, examination of paired sera showed that the dominant humoral immune response during early convalescence was to the virus major capsid protein (58 kD) and during late convalescence to the minor capsid species (83 kD) [6].
  • Platelet-aggregation sensitivity to adenosine diphosphate and adrenaline was also increased in patients with acute cerebral ischaemia, but this abnormally resolved during convalescence [7].
  • Serologic testing showed mean alanine aminotransferase levels of 1668 IU/L during the acute stage, 107 IU/L during the early convalescence, and 1027 IU/L during the relapse [8].
  • In convalescence, uridine-to-uracil ratios and FA studies of buffy coat normalized, indicating clearance of M. pneumoniae from blood [9].
  • It was not made in UV-HSV-stimulated cultures grown in presence of 2 X 10(-6) M indomethacin nor in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained during convalescence or quiescence (greater than 4 days from onset of clinical symptoms) or from seropositive controls without a history of recurrent HSV disease [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Convalescence

  • By extrapolation, at normal stool output fasting jejunal flow rates of PGE2 equalled those measured during convalescence [11].
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative dexamethasone (8 mg) reduced pain, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, and duration of convalescence in patients undergoing noncomplicated LC, when compared with placebo, and is recommended for routine use [12].
  • The results of initial trials of amdinocillin and ampicillin in combination suggest that such therapy may be preferable to use of amdinocillin alone, although the excretion of the causative organism during convalescence has not been adequately assessed [13].
  • Infections modify the serum lipid pattern: serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration decreases and stays low during convalescence [14].
  • Free cortisol levels normalized more promptly than total cortisol in convalescence [15].

Biological context of Convalescence

  • Significantly reduced cell death during convalescence was associated with a significant up-regulation of Bcl-2, Bax, and WAF-1 expression in the rectum compared to that in the acute phase of infection [16].
  • A marked increase in the phagocytosis of ethanol-fixed meningococcal strains of different serogroups, serotypes, and serosubtypes was demonstrated in the presence of convalescence sera compared with acute sera [17].
  • A clinical diagnosis is confirmed with use of the polymerase chain reaction during the infection or by serology during convalescence [18].
  • Study of sera obtained during convalescence from 86 surviving infants indicated a poor antibody response to infection [19].
  • However, group 1 had a decreased blood loss (23.1 versus 74.6 versus 61.7 ml.), earlier resumption of oral food intake (0.9 versus 2.5 versus 2.1 days), shorter hospital stay (2 versus 6.1 versus 6.3 days) and abbreviated convalescence (2.2 versus 6.9 versus 4.5 weeks) compared to groups 2 and 3 [20].

Anatomical context of Convalescence


Gene context of Convalescence

  • LPS-stimulated production of cytokines was lower during the acute phase than during convalescence (mean values: IL-1 beta, 2547 vs. 6576 pg/mL; TNF alpha, 2609 vs. 6338 pg/mL; IL-6, 2416 vs. 7713 pg/mL) [26].
  • Moreover, elevated urinary levels of both MIP-1alpha and MCP-1 dramatically decreased during glucocorticoid therapy-induced convalescence [27].
  • Direct measurement showed that MMP-9 specific activity is significantly increased during asthma exacerbations compared with subsequent convalescence (269.6 (31.7) v 170.4 (12.6) ng/ml, p=0.0099) [28].
  • The MMP-2 and -9 activity as measured by zymography also was higher in MNC supernatants in the acute phase of stroke compared to convalescence [29].
  • The activity of LPL was reduced both in the acute and convalescence phase, whereas that of HL was reduced only in the acute phase of infections.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[30]

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Convalescence


  1. SH2D1A mutations in Japanese males with severe Epstein-Barr virus--associated illnesses. Sumazaki, R., Kanegane, H., Osaki, M., Fukushima, T., Tsuchida, M., Matsukura, H., Shinozaki, K., Kimura, H., Matsui, A., Miyawaki, T. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Results of a multidisciplinary strategy for management of mediastinal parathyroid adenoma as a cause of persistent primary hyperparathyroidism. Doherty, G.M., Doppman, J.L., Miller, D.L., Gee, M.S., Marx, S.J., Spiegel, A.M., Aurbach, G.D., Pass, H.I., Brennan, M.F., Norton, J.A. Ann. Surg. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Antibody to the hepatitis B virus receptor for polymerized albumin in acute infection and in hepatitis B vaccine recipients. Pontisso, P., Schiavon, E., Fraiese, A., Pornaro, E., Realdi, G., Alberti, A. J. Hepatol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Immunity to herpes simplex virus: virus reactivation modulates lymphokine activity. Sheridan, J.F., Beck, M., Aurelian, L., Radowsky, M. J. Infect. Dis. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Immunoglobulin E in patients with Japanese encephalitis. Pavri, K.M., Ramamoorthy, C.L., Dhorje, S. Infect. Immun. (1980) [Pubmed]
  6. Immune response to B19 parvovirus and an antibody defect in persistent viral infection. Kurtzman, G.J., Cohen, B.J., Field, A.M., Oseas, R., Blaese, R.M., Young, N.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Platelet activation in acute cerebral ischaemia. Serial measurements of platelet function in cerebrovascular disease. Dougherty, J.H., Levy, D.E., Weksler, B.B. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Hepatitis A virus in stool during clinical relapse. Sjogren, M.H., Tanno, H., Fay, O., Sileoni, S., Cohen, B.D., Burke, D.S., Feighny, R.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Neurological disease associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonitis: demonstration of viable Mycoplasma pneumoniae in cerebrospinal fluid and blood by radioisotopic and immunofluorescent tissue culture techniques. Bayer, A.S., Galpin, J.E., Theofilopoulos, A.N., Guze, L.B. Ann. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus is associated with production of a low molecular weight factor that inhibits lymphokine activity in vitro. Sheridan, J.F., Beck, M., Smith, C.C., Aurelian, L. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Increased jejunal prostaglandin E2 concentrations in patients with acute cholera. Speelman, P., Rabbani, G.H., Bukhave, K., Rask-Madsen, J. Gut (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Preoperative dexamethasone improves surgical outcome after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Bisgaard, T., Klarskov, B., Kehlet, H., Rosenberg, J. Ann. Surg. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Management of enteric fever with amdinocillin. Ball, A.P., Geddes, A.M. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Altered serum lipid profile after systemic infection in children: risk factor for CHD? Pesonen, E., Rapola, J., Viikari, J., Turtinen, J., Akerblom, H.K. Eur. Heart J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Septic shock and sepsis: a comparison of total and free plasma cortisol levels. Ho, J.T., Al-Musalhi, H., Chapman, M.J., Quach, T., Thomas, P.D., Bagley, C.J., Lewis, J.G., Torpy, D.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Apoptosis in acute shigellosis is associated with increased production of Fas/Fas ligand, perforin, caspase-1, and caspase-3 but reduced production of Bcl-2 and interleukin-2. Raqib, R., Ekberg, C., Sharkar, P., Bardhan, P.K., Zychlinsky, A., Sansonetti, P.J., Andersson, J. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Cross-reacting serum opsonins in patients with meningococcal disease. Guttormsen, H.K., Bjerknes, R., Naess, A., Lehmann, V., Halstensen, A., Sørnes, S., Solberg, C.O. Infect. Immun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Ehrlichial diseases of humans: emerging tick-borne infections. Dumler, J.S., Bakken, J.S. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Role of antibody to native type III polysaccharide of group B Streptococcus in infant infection. Baker, C.J., Edwards, M.S., Kasper, D.L. Pediatrics (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Transperitoneal marsupialization of lymphoceles: a comparison of laparoscopic and open techniques. Gill, I.S., Hodge, E.E., Munch, L.C., Goldfarb, D.A., Novick, A.C., Lucas, B.A. J. Urol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Experimental allergic neuritis: cytolysin mRNA expression is upregulated in lymph node cells during convalescence. Zhu, J., Bai, X.F., Mix, E., Link, H. J. Neuroimmunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Nasal mucosa in natural colds: effects of allergic rhinitis and susceptibility to recurrent sinusitis. Alho, O.P., Karttunen, R., Karttunen, T.J. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Increased tumour necrosis factor alpha production by neutrophils in patients with hepatitis B. Fan, X., Zhang, Z. J. Clin. Pathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. A new-born baby outbreak of echovirus type 33 infection. Sato, K., Yamashita, T., Sakae, K., Suzuki, Y., Ishikawa, N., Nishimura, Y. J. Infect. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Perioperative antibiotic, steroidal, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents in cataract intraocular lens surgery. Abel, R., Abel, A.D. Current opinion in ophthalmology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Patterns of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibitors during typhoid fever. Keuter, M., Dharmana, E., Gasem, M.H., van der Ven-Jongekrijg, J., Djokomoeljanto, R., Dolmans, W.M., Demacker, P., Sauerwein, R., Gallati, H., van der Meer, J.W. J. Infect. Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. MIP-1alpha and MCP-1 contribute to crescents and interstitial lesions in human crescentic glomerulonephritis. Wada, T., Furuichi, K., Segawa-Takaeda, C., Shimizu, M., Sakai, N., Takeda, S.I., Takasawa, K., Kida, H., Kobayashi, K.I., Mukaida, N., Ohmoto, Y., Matsushima, K., Yokoyama, H. Kidney Int. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Increased circulating 92 kDa matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) activity in exacerbations of asthma. Oshita, Y., Koga, T., Kamimura, T., Matsuo, K., Rikimaru, T., Aizawa, H. Thorax (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Matrix metalloproteinase and cytokine profiles in monocytes over the course of stroke. Kouwenhoven, M., Carlström, C., Ozenci, V., Link, H. J. Clin. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Changes in serum lipoprotein pattern induced by acute infections. Sammalkorpi, K., Valtonen, V., Kerttula, Y., Nikkilä, E., Taskinen, M.R. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper tract transitional cell cancer: the Washington University experience. Shalhav, A.L., Dunn, M.D., Portis, A.J., Elbahnasy, A.M., McDougall, E.M., Clayman, R.V. J. Urol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Epidural bupivacaine and morphine plus systemic indomethacin eliminates pain but not systemic response and convalescence after cholecystectomy. Schulze, S., Roikjaer, O., Hasselstrøm, L., Jensen, N.H., Kehlet, H. Surgery (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. Electrophysiologic and electroretinographic evidence for photoreceptor dysfunction as a toxic effect of digoxin. Madreperla, S.A., Johnson, M.A., Nakatani, K. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Nonrandomized comparison of open flank versus laparoscopic nephrectomy in 249 patients with benign renal disease. Fornara, P., Doehn, C., Friedrich, H.J., Jocham, D. Eur. Urol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Single-lung transplantation with atrial septal defect repair for Eisenmenger's syndrome. McCarthy, P.M., Rosenkranz, E.R., White, R.D., Rice, T.W., Sterba, R., Vargo, R., Mehta, A.C. Ann. Thorac. Surg. (1991) [Pubmed]
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