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Gene Review

TRX2  -  thioredoxin TRX2

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: G7746, TR-II, TRX1, Thioredoxin II, Thioredoxin-1, ...
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Disease relevance of TRX2


High impact information on TRX2

  • This is the first study that implicates thioredoxin activity in the regulation of plant disease resistance [6].
  • A heterodimer of thioredoxin and I(B)2 cooperates with Sec18p (NSF) to promote yeast vacuole inheritance [7].
  • Rapid and efficient homotypic fusion between salt-washed vacuoles requires the addition of only two purified soluble proteins, Sec18p (NSF) and LMA1, a novel heterodimer with a thioredoxin subunit [7].
  • Using a specific genetic screen, the TRX2 gene, one of two genes of S. cerevisiae that encode thioredoxin protein, was identified as being essential for YAP1 dependent resistance to hydroperoxides [8].
  • We demonstrate our approach with PTSB, a growth inhibitory compound with a previously unknown mode of action, by predicting and validating thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase as its target [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of TRX2


Biological context of TRX2


Anatomical context of TRX2


Associations of TRX2 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of TRX2

  • The results suggest that cells lacking thioredoxin reductase have diminished capacity to detoxify oxidants and/or to repair oxidative stress-induced damage and that the thioredoxin system is involved in the redox regulation of Yap1p transcriptional activity [23].
  • Substitution of Phe(50) alters the beta-sheet in the thioredoxin fold structure and inhibits Grx5 function [24].

Other interactions of TRX2

  • An impact on ribonucleotide reduction was seen by an increased accumulation of RNR1 and RNR2 transcripts in the thioredoxin mutant (4.3- and 6.8-fold, respectively) [15].
  • A single glutaredoxin or thioredoxin gene is essential for viability in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae [25].
  • Similar to yeast Tsa1p, Ahp1p forms a disulfide-linked homodimer upon oxidation and in vivo requires the presence of the thioredoxin system but not of glutathione to perform its antioxidant protective function [26].
  • Here we show that GPX2 encodes an atypical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin which uses thioredoxin as an electron donor [27].
  • The 25-kDa enzyme is now shown to be a peroxidase that reduces H2O2 and alkyl hydroperoxides with the use of hydrogens provided by thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and NADPH [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TRX2


  1. In vivo functional discrimination between plant thioredoxins by heterologous expression in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mouaheb, N., Thomas, D., Verdoucq, L., Monfort, P., Meyer, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. A glutathione reductase mutant of yeast accumulates high levels of oxidized glutathione and requires thioredoxin for growth. Muller, E.G. Mol. Biol. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Arsenate reduction: thiol cascade chemistry with convergent evolution. Messens, J., Silver, S. J. Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Properties of a thioredoxin purified from rabbit bone marrow which fails to serve as a hydrogen donor for the homologous ribonucleotide reductase. Hopper, S., Iurlano, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of cellular membrane proteins interacting with hepatitis B surface antigen using yeast split-ubiquitin system. Toh, Q.C., Tan, T.L., Teo, W.Q., Ho, C.Y., Parida, S., Chen, W.N. International journal of medical sciences [electronic resource]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. CITRX thioredoxin interacts with the tomato Cf-9 resistance protein and negatively regulates defence. Rivas, S., Rougon-Cardoso, A., Smoker, M., Schauser, L., Yoshioka, H., Jones, J.D. EMBO J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. A heterodimer of thioredoxin and I(B)2 cooperates with Sec18p (NSF) to promote yeast vacuole inheritance. Xu, Z., Mayer, A., Muller, E., Wickner, W. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. YAP1 dependent activation of TRX2 is essential for the response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to oxidative stress by hydroperoxides. Kuge, S., Jones, N. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Chemogenomic profiling on a genome-wide scale using reverse-engineered gene networks. di Bernardo, D., Thompson, M.J., Gardner, T.S., Chobot, S.E., Eastwood, E.L., Wojtovich, A.P., Elliott, S.J., Schaus, S.E., Collins, J.J. Nat. Biotechnol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Overexpression of wild type and SeCys/Cys mutant of human thioredoxin reductase in E. coli: the role of selenocysteine in the catalytic activity. Bar-Noy, S., Gorlatov, S.N., Stadtman, T.C. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Picosecond tryptophan fluorescence of thioredoxin: evidence for discrete species in slow exchange. Mérola, F., Rigler, R., Holmgren, A., Brochon, J.C. Biochemistry (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibition of metal-catalyzed oxidation systems by a yeast protector protein in the presence of thioredoxin. Kwon, S.J., Park, J.W., Choi, W.K., Kim, I.H., Kim, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification and functional characterization of a novel mitochondrial thioredoxin system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pedrajas, J.R., Kosmidou, E., Miranda-Vizuete, A., Gustafsson, J.A., Wright, A.P., Spyrou, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Thioredoxin deficiency in yeast prolongs S phase and shortens the G1 interval of the cell cycle. Muller, E.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Deoxyribonucleotides are maintained at normal levels in a yeast thioredoxin mutant defective in DNA synthesis. Muller, E.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Enrichment of yeast thioredoxin by green tea extract through activation of Yap1 transcription factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Takatsume, Y., Maeta, K., Izawa, S., Inoue, Y. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Distinct physiological functions of thiol peroxidase isoenzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Park, S.G., Cha, M.K., Jeong, W., Kim, I.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Thioredoxin is required for vacuole inheritance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Xu, Z., Wickner, W. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Roles of the glutathione- and thioredoxin-dependent reduction systems in the Escherichia coli and saccharomyces cerevisiae responses to oxidative stress. Carmel-Harel, O., Storz, G. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. The thioredoxin system protects ribosomes against stress-induced aggregation. Rand, J.D., Grant, C.M. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Thioredoxin reductase-dependent inhibition of MCB cell cycle box activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Machado, A.K., Morgan, B.A., Merrill, G.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Thioredoxins are required for protection against a reductive stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Trotter, E.W., Grant, C.M. Mol. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Role of thioredoxin reductase in the Yap1p-dependent response to oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Carmel-Harel, O., Stearman, R., Gasch, A.P., Botstein, D., Brown, P.O., Storz, G. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Structure-function analysis of yeast Grx5 monothiol glutaredoxin defines essential amino acids for the function of the protein. Bellí, G., Polaina, J., Tamarit, J., De La Torre, M.A., Rodríguez-Manzaneque, M.T., Ros, J., Herrero, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. A single glutaredoxin or thioredoxin gene is essential for viability in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Draculic, T., Dawes, I.W., Grant, C.M. Mol. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. A new antioxidant with alkyl hydroperoxide defense properties in yeast. Lee, J., Spector, D., Godon, C., Labarre, J., Toledano, M.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. GPX2, encoding a phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase homologue, codes for an atypical 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tanaka, T., Izawa, S., Inoue, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reductase from yeast. Chae, H.Z., Chung, S.J., Rhee, S.G. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Yeast thioredoxin genes. Gan, Z.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Cloning and sequencing of a gene encoding yeast thioltransferase. Gan, Z.R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of mitochondrial thioredoxin Trx3 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bao, R., Chen, Y.X., Zhang, Y., Zhou, C.Z. Acta Crystallograph. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
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