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MeSH Review

Cells, Immobilized

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Disease relevance of Cells, Immobilized


High impact information on Cells, Immobilized

  • There has been an increasing interest in the use of immobilized cells for the production of pharmaceuticals as well as for products such as high fructose syrup or ethanol [6].
  • The cell-to-cell binding induced by concanavalin A (Con A) and the lectins from wheatgerm, soybean, and waxbean has been analyzed by measuring the ability of single cells to bind to lectin-coated cells immobilized on nylon fibers [7].
  • No effect was observed on adhesion to purified platelet CD36 cells immobilized on plastic [8].
  • The production of the RAG-1 emulsan has been studied in batch-fed fermentors via self-cycling fermentation and with immobilized cells using a Celite support matrix [9].
  • The incubation with P-gp monoclonal antibody and then the secondary alkaline phosphatase (AP) conjugated antibody introduced AP onto the K562/ADM cell immobilized on Au-CS/GCE [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cells, Immobilized


Biological context of Cells, Immobilized


Anatomical context of Cells, Immobilized


Associations of Cells, Immobilized with chemical compounds


Gene context of Cells, Immobilized

  • First, the expression of the SUC2 gene was maintained throughout growth in immobilized cells, whereas its expression was only transient in free cells [28].
  • Effect of temperature on the stability of plasmid pTG201 and productivity of xylE gene product in recombinant Escherichia coli: development of a two-stage chemostat with free and immobilized cells [29].
  • Generally, the plasmid stability was enhanced in cultured immobilized cells compared with free-cell cultures [30].
  • Feedback on IP3R sensitivity by gross cytosolic Ca2+ levels could be eliminated as the sustained and exclusive mediator of incremental activation/inactivation cycle of IICM in SH-SY5Y cells, since released Ca2+ was perfused away from the immobilized cells [31].
  • PNP was totally depleted in 5 days by immobilized cells, whereas free cells were able to deplete 75% of PNP in the same time period [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cells, Immobilized

  • This new screening method is based on the "cell immobilized on adsorbed bead" approach: the cell population to be screened is mixed with an excess of medium pre-equilibrated polyacrylamide beads, chemically derivatized to affect quantitative cell immobilization by adsorption [33].
  • As an example, we present the double-immunolabeling method for the S-antigen (SAg), a photoreceptor-specific protein, and the indoleamine serotonin (5HT) in dissociated trout and rat pineal cells immobilized on coverslipped and in frozen sections of the trout pineal organ [34].
  • Using these conditions in immobilized cell culture the growth phase was prolonged and the duration of expression of the isopenicillin N synthase gene (pcbC) was significantly extended when compared with free cell culture (150 h as opposed to 100 h) [35].
  • By installing the decantor on an immobilized-cell perfusion bioprocess system, a stable continuous operation was possible even at a high dilution rate for an extended period, leading to high productivities of free cells and CyA [36].
  • Effects of oral administration of artificial cells immobilized phenylalanine ammonia-lyase on intestinal amino acids of phenylketonuric rats [37].


  1. Propachlor removal by Pseudomonas strain GCH1 in an immobilized-cell system. Martín, M., Mengs, G., Plaza, E., Garbi, C., Sánchez, M., Gibello, A., Gutierrez, F., Ferrer, E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Hydrolysis of lactose by immobilized microorganisms. Ohmiya, K., Ohashi, H., Kobayashi, T., Shimizu, S. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  3. Detection of ethanol in a two-component glucose/ethanol mixture using a nonselective microbial sensor and a glucose enzyme electrode. Reshetilov, A.N., Lobanov, A.V., Morozova, N.O., Gordon, S.H., Greene, R.V., Leathers, T.D. Biosensors & bioelectronics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Extractive fermentation for butyric acid production from glucose by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. Wu, Z., Yang, S.T. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Reduction of Cr(VI) by immobilized cells of Desulfovibrio vulgaris NCIMB 8303 and Microbacterium sp. NCIMB 13776. Humphries, A.C., Nott, K.P., Hall, L.D., Macaskie, L.E. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Formation of proinsulin by immobilized Bacillus subtilis. Mosbach, K., Birnbaum, S., Hardy, K., Davies, J., Bülow, L. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Cell-to-cell binding induced by different lectins. Rutishauser, U., Sachs, L. J. Cell Biol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Sulfated glycoconjugates enhance CD36-dependent adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to human microvascular endothelial cells. McCormick, C.J., Newbold, C.I., Berendt, A.R. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Bioemulsans: microbial polymeric emulsifiers. Rosenberg, E., Ron, E.Z. Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Electrochemical immunoassay of membrane P-glycoprotein by immobilization of cells on gold nanoparticles modified on a methoxysilyl-terminated butyrylchitosan matrix. Du, D., Ju, H., Zhang, X., Chen, J., Cai, J., Chen, H. Biochemistry (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Degradation of acrylamide by immobilized cells of a Pseudomonas sp. and Xanthomonas maltophilia. Nawaz, M.S., Franklin, W., Cerniglia, C.E. Can. J. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Toxicity of nickel, zinc, and cadmium to nitrate uptake in free and immobilized cells of Scenedesmus quadricauda. Awasthi, M., Rai, L.C. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Food additive lactic acid production by immobilized cells of Lactobacillus brevis on delignified cellulosic material. Elezi, O., Kourkoutas, Y., Koutinas, A.A., Kanellaki, M., Bezirtzoglou, E., Barnett, Y.A., Nigam, P. J. Agric. Food Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Substrate induction of isomaltulose synthase in a newly isolated Klebsiella sp. LX3. Li, X., Zhao, C., An, Q., Zhang, D. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Enzymatic production of L-tryptophan from DL-serine and indole by a coupled reaction of tryptophan synthase and amino acid racemase. Ishiwata, K., Fukuhara, N., Shimada, M., Makiguchi, N., Soda, K. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Hydroxylation and biodegradation of 6-methylquinoline by pseudomonads in aqueous and nonaqueous immobilized-cell bioreactors. Rothenburger, S., Atlas, R.M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Cell growth on immobilized cell growth factor. 9. Covalent immobilization of insulin, transferrin, and collagen to enhance growth of bovine endothelial cells. Liu, S.Q., Ito, Y., Imanishi, Y. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Development of a novel, multi-analyte biosensor system for assaying cell division: identification of cell proliferation/death precursor events. Kintzios, S., Marinopoulou, I., Moschopoulou, G., Mangana, O., Nomikou, K., Endo, K., Papanastasiou, I., Simonian, A. Biosensors & bioelectronics. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. A patch coating method for preparing biocatalytic films of Escherichia coli. Lyngberg, O.K., Thiagarajan, V., Stemke, D.J., Schottel, J.L., Scriven, L.E., Flickinger, M.C. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Cellular cross-linking of peptide modified hydrogels. Drury, J.L., Boontheekul, T., Boontheeku, T., Mooney, D.J. Journal of biomechanical engineering. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Cell growth on immobilized cell growth factor. 6. Enhancement of fibroblast cell growth by immobilized insulin and/or fibronectin. Ito, Y., Inoue, M., Liu, S.Q., Imanishi, Y. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Immobilization of Escherichia coli JM103[pUC8] in kappa-carrageenan coupled with recombinant protein release by in situ cell membrane permeabilization. Ryan, W., Parulekar, S.J. Biotechnol. Prog. (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Bacitracin production by whole cells immobilized in polyacrylamide gel. Morikawa, Y., Ochiai, K., Karube, I., Suzuki, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. ATP depletion causes translational immobilization of cell surface transferrin receptors in K562 cells. Thatte, H.S., Bridges, K.R., Golan, D.E. J. Cell. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Product inhibition of immobilized Escherichia coli arising from mass transfer limitation. Stewart, P.S., Robertson, C.R. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Improvement of NaNO2-oxidizing activity in Nitrobacter vulgaris by coentrapment in polyacrylamide containing polydimethylsiloxane copolymer and DEAE-sephadex. Zhang, S., Norrlöw, O., Dey, E.S. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. The role of oxygen limitation in the resistance of agar-entrapped, sessile-like Escherichia coli to aminoglycoside and beta-lactam antibiotics. Tresse, O., Jouenne, T., Junter, G.A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Clues to the origin of high external invertase activity in immobilized growing yeast: prolonged SUC2 transcription and less susceptibility of the enzyme to endogenous proteolysis. de Alteriis, E., Alepuz, P.M., Estruch, F., Parascandola, P. Can. J. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of temperature on the stability of plasmid pTG201 and productivity of xylE gene product in recombinant Escherichia coli: development of a two-stage chemostat with free and immobilized cells. Sayadi, S., Nasri, M., Berry, F., Barbotin, J.N., Thomas, D. J. Gen. Microbiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Plasmid stability in immobilized and free recombinant Escherichia coli JM105(pKK223-200): importance of oxygen diffusion, growth rate, and plasmid copy number. de Taxis du Poët, P., Arcand, Y., Bernier, R., Barbotin, J.N., Thomas, D. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Quantal calcium release in electropermeabilized SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells perfused with myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Wilcox, R.A., Strupish, J., Nahorski, S.R. Cell Calcium (1996) [Pubmed]
  32. Pot and field studies on bioremediation of p-nitrophenol contaminated soil using Arthrobacter protophormiae RKJ100. Labana, S., Pandey, G., Paul, D., Sharma, N.K., Basu, A., Jain, R.K. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Screening of large protein libraries by the cell immobilized on adsorbed bead approach. Freeman, A., Cohen-Hadar, N., Abramov, S., Modai-Hod, R., Dror, Y., Georgiou, G. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. A specific and sensitive double-immunofluorescence method for the demonstration of S-antigen and serotonin in trout and rat pinealocytes by means of primary antibodies from the same donor species. Kroeber, S., Schomerus, C., Korf, H.W. Histochem. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Physiological studies related to the immobilization of Penicillium chrysogenum and penicillin production. Mussenden, P., Keshavarz, T., Saunders, G., Bucke, C. Enzyme Microb. Technol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Development of a cell-loaded biosupport separator for continuous immobilized-cell perfusion culture. Lee, T.H., Chun, G.T., Chang, Y.K. Biotechnol. Prog. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Effects of oral administration of artificial cells immobilized phenylalanine ammonia-lyase on intestinal amino acids of phenylketonuric rats. Bourget, L., Chang, T.M. Biomaterials, artificial cells, and artificial organs. (1989) [Pubmed]
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