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Gene Review

GLC7  -  type 1 serine/threonine-protein...

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: CID1, DIS2, Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-2, YER133W
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High impact information on GLC7

  • Conversely, combination of SET1 and GLC7 mutations is lethal [1].
  • A balance in the activities of the Ipl Aurora kinase and the Glc7 phosphatase is essential for normal chromosome segregation in yeast [1].
  • Mek1 kinase activity and checkpoint-induced pachytene arrest are counteracted by protein phosphatase type 1 (Glc7) [2].
  • Point-of-execution experiments indicate Glc7p function is required in G2/M just before anaphase for the completion of mitosis [3].
  • Regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinetochores by the type 1 phosphatase Glc7p [4].

Biological context of GLC7

  • The Saccharomyces cerevisiae GLC7 gene encodes the catalytic subunit of type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1) and is required for cell growth [5].
  • Genetic analysis suggests that the truncated GLC7 allele has a dominant negative phenotype, reducing the level of native type 1 protein phosphatase activity in the cell [6].
  • This conclusion is supported by biochemical studies showing that the truncated GLC7 allele increases the level of eIF-2 alpha phosphorylation in the gcn2-507 mutant to a level approaching that seen in wild-type cells under starvation conditions [6].
  • In addition, the chromosome missegregation phenotype caused by an increase in the dosage of GLC7 is totally suppressed by the glc8-delta 101::LEU2 deletion mutation [7].
  • We have also generated a temperature-sensitive allele of GLC7 (glc7-12) which causes a block to the completion of mitosis at the restrictive temperature [8].

Anatomical context of GLC7


Associations of GLC7 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of GLC7

  • Functional analysis of the yeast Glc7-binding protein Reg1 identifies a protein phosphatase type 1-binding motif as essential for repression of ADH2 expression [19].
  • Similar phenotypes were observed in a glc7-136 mutant, which expresses a Glc7p defective in interacting with Gip1p [9].
  • Previous two-hybrid screens showed that Scd5p interacts with Glc7p, a yeast Ser/Thr-specific protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) that participates in a variety of cellular processes [20].
  • These results indicate that a Gip1p-Glc7p phosphatase complex is required for proper septin organization and initiation of spore wall formation during sporulation [9].
  • Furthermore, quantitative analysis showed that Glc7p affinity for the glycogen-binding noncatalytic subunit Gac1p was not the only parameter that determines the glycogen accumulation by a glc7 mutant [21].

Enzymatic interactions of GLC7

  • Here, we report that depletion of Glc7 causes shortened poly(A) tails in vivo and accumulation of phosphorylated Pta1, a CPF subunit [22].
  • These data strongly suggest that Glc7 ensures accurate chromosome segregation by dephosphorylating Ipl1 targets rather than regulating the Ipl1 kinase [23].

Regulatory relationships of GLC7

  • Mutation of the type-1 protein phosphatase encoded by GLC7 only partially suppresses the glycogen phenotype of the pho85 mutant [24].
  • Overexpression of GLC7 suppressed the temperature-sensitive growth of the KKVRF mutant and partially rescued the actin organization phenotype [20].
  • A Gip1p-Glc7p phosphatase complex regulates septin organization and spore wall formation [9].
  • Glc7p protein phosphatase inhibits expression of glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase from GFA1 [25].
  • The Glc7p nuclear phosphatase promotes mRNA export by facilitating association of Mex67p with mRNA [26].

Other interactions of GLC7

  • Here we show that GIP1 and the protein phosphatase 1 encoded by GLC7 play essential roles in spore development [9].
  • Previous experimental evidence had indicated that Reg1 might target Glc7 to nuclear substrates such as the Snf1 kinase complex [19].
  • The GAC1 gene encodes the regulatory subunit for a type 1 serine/threonine phosphoprotein phosphatase, Glc7 [27].
  • We identified a truncated form of the GLC7 gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of a type 1 protein phosphatase, by its ability to restore derepression of GCN4 expression in a strain containing the partially defective gcn2-507 allele [6].
  • We have isolated a previously uncharacterized gene, REG2, on the basis of its ability to interact with Glc7p in the two-hybrid system [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GLC7

  • The glc7 mutant of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not accumulate glycogen due to a defect in glycogen synthase activation (Peng, Z., Trumbly, R. J., and Reimann, E.M. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 13871-13877) whereas wild-type strains accumulate glycogen as the cell cultures approach stationary phase [29].
  • Phosphatase activity assays, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot analyses of the chromatographic fractions suggested that the Glc7p associated with regulatory subunits in vivo [30].
  • The C-terminally poly-his tagged Glc7p with and without an N-terminal hemagglutinin (HA) tag was partially purified by immobilized Ni(2+) affinity chromatography and further analyzed by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography [30].
  • According to the partial sequence of ACT1 gene and flow cytometry analysis, strain CID1 is a triple hybrid between S. cerevisiae, S. kudriavzevii and S. bayanus var. uvarum [31].


  1. The Set1 methyltransferase opposes Ipl1 aurora kinase functions in chromosome segregation. Zhang, K., Lin, W., Latham, J.A., Riefler, G.M., Schumacher, J.M., Chan, C., Tatchell, K., Hawke, D.H., Kobayashi, R., Dent, S.Y. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Pachytene exit controlled by reversal of Mek1-dependent phosphorylation. Bailis, J.M., Roeder, G.S. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Defects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein phosphatase type I activate the spindle/kinetochore checkpoint. Bloecher, A., Tatchell, K. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinetochores by the type 1 phosphatase Glc7p. Sassoon, I., Severin, F.F., Andrews, P.D., Taba, M.R., Kaplan, K.B., Ashford, A.J., Stark, M.J., Sorger, P.K., Hyman, A.A. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. The EGP1 gene may be a positive regulator of protein phosphatase type 1 in the growth control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hisamoto, N., Frederick, D.L., Sugimoto, K., Tatchell, K., Matsumoto, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Truncated protein phosphatase GLC7 restores translational activation of GCN4 expression in yeast mutants defective for the eIF-2 alpha kinase GCN2. Wek, R.C., Cannon, J.F., Dever, T.E., Hinnebusch, A.G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of chromosome segregation by Glc8p, a structural homolog of mammalian inhibitor 2 that functions as both an activator and an inhibitor of yeast protein phosphatase 1. Tung, H.Y., Wang, W., Chan, C.S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene SDS22 encodes a potential regulator of the mitotic function of yeast type 1 protein phosphatase. MacKelvie, S.H., Andrews, P.D., Stark, M.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. A Gip1p-Glc7p phosphatase complex regulates septin organization and spore wall formation. Tachikawa, H., Bloecher, A., Tatchell, K., Neiman, A.M. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Protein phosphatase type 1 regulates ion homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Williams-Hart, T., Wu, X., Tatchell, K. Genetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. The Sec1p/Munc18 (SM) protein, Vps45p, cycles on and off membranes during vesicle transport. Bryant, N.J., James, D.E. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. The type 1 phosphatase Reg1p-Glc7p is required for the glucose-induced degradation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in the vacuole. Cui, D.Y., Brown, C.R., Chiang, H.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Possible role of mouse poly(A) polymerase mGLD-2 during oocyte maturation. Nakanishi, T., Kubota, H., Ishibashi, N., Kumagai, S., Watanabe, H., Yamashita, M., Kashiwabara, S., Miyado, K., Baba, T. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Type 1 protein phosphatase is required for maintenance of cell wall integrity, morphogenesis and cell cycle progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Andrews, P.D., Stark, M.J. J. Cell. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Genetic interactions between REG1/HEX2 and GLC7, the gene encoding the protein phosphatase type 1 catalytic subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Huang, D., Chun, K.T., Goebl, M.G., Roach, P.J. Genetics (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. The GLC7 type 1 protein phosphatase is required for glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Tu, J., Carlson, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation of Snf1 kinase. Activation requires phosphorylation of threonine 210 by an upstream kinase as well as a distinct step mediated by the Snf4 subunit. McCartney, R.R., Schmidt, M.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Global control of histone modification by the anaphase-promoting complex. Ramaswamy, V., Williams, J.S., Robinson, K.M., Sopko, R.L., Schultz, M.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Functional analysis of the yeast Glc7-binding protein Reg1 identifies a protein phosphatase type 1-binding motif as essential for repression of ADH2 expression. Dombek, K.M., Voronkova, V., Raney, A., Young, E.T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Protein phosphatase-1 binding to scd5p is important for regulation of actin organization and endocytosis in yeast. Chang, J.S., Henry, K., Wolf, B.L., Geli, M., Lemmon, S.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of yeast glycogen metabolism and sporulation by Glc7p protein phosphatase. Ramaswamy, N.T., Li, L., Khalil, M., Cannon, J.F. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Regulation of yeast mRNA 3' end processing by phosphorylation. He, X., Moore, C. Mol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Glc7/protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunits can oppose the Ipl1/aurora protein kinase by redistributing Glc7. Pinsky, B.A., Kotwaliwale, C.V., Tatsutani, S.Y., Breed, C.A., Biggins, S. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Deletion of the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent protein kinase Pho85 alters glycogen metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Timblin, B.K., Tatchell, K., Bergman, L.W. Genetics (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Glc7p protein phosphatase inhibits expression of glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase from GFA1. Zheng, J., Khalil, M., Cannon, J.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. The Glc7p nuclear phosphatase promotes mRNA export by facilitating association of Mex67p with mRNA. Gilbert, W., Guthrie, C. Mol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Glycogen synthase phosphatase interacts with heat shock factor to activate CUP1 gene transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lin, J.T., Lis, J.T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. The REG2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a type 1 protein phosphatase-binding protein that functions with Reg1p and the Snf1 protein kinase to regulate growth. Frederick, D.L., Tatchell, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. The yeast GLC7 gene required for glycogen accumulation encodes a type 1 protein phosphatase. Feng, Z.H., Wilson, S.E., Peng, Z.Y., Schlender, K.K., Reimann, E.M., Trumbly, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Sds22p is a subunit of a stable isolatable form of protein phosphatase 1 (Glc7p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hong, G., Trumbly, R.J., Reimann, E.M., Schlender, K.K. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Molecular genetic study of introgression between Saccharomyces bayanus and S. cerevisiae. Naumova, E.S., Naumov, G.I., Masneuf-Pomarède, I., Aigle, M., Dubourdieu, D. Yeast (2005) [Pubmed]
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