The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

DIRAS3  -  DIRAS family, GTP-binding RAS-like 3

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ARHI, Distinct subgroup of the Ras family member 3, GTP-binding protein Di-Ras3, NOEY2, RHOI, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of DIRAS3


High impact information on DIRAS3


Chemical compound and disease context of DIRAS3


Biological context of DIRAS3


Anatomical context of DIRAS3

  • ARHI is associated at the cell membrane through its prenylation at the C-terminal cysteine residue [9].
  • By histochemical analysis, ARHI expression was down-regulated in 41% (26 of 64) of DCIS and 70% (16 of 23) of invasive carcinomas comparing the specimens with adjacent normal breast epithelium [4].
  • In addition, strong expression of the ARHI transgene was associated with greatly impaired mammary gland development and lactation, failure of ovarian folliculogenesis resulting in decreased fertility, loss of neurons in the cerebellar cortex, and impaired development of the thymus [10].
  • Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis [11].
  • Since ARHI had been mapped to 1p31, a common deletion site in breast and ovarian cancer and male germ-cell tumors, in this study, we set out to define precisely the physical location of ARHI at 1p31 and to determine if this location lies within the smallest common region of deletion in breast and ovarian cancers [12].

Associations of DIRAS3 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of DIRAS3


Other interactions of DIRAS3

  • The expression of cyclin D1 and p21(WAF1/CIP1) was inversely correlated with that of ARHI [4].
  • ARHI is a Ras-related small G-protein with a novel N-terminal extension that inhibits growth of ovarian and breast cancers [9].
  • Two of them (CpG island I and II) are located within the promoter and adjacent exon 1 of the ARHI gene [15].
  • Novel genes recently implicated in ovarian tumorigenesis are discussed, including NOEY2, OVCA1, and PIK3CA [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DIRAS3


  1. NOEY2 (ARHI), an imprinted putative tumor suppressor gene in ovarian and breast carcinomas. Yu, Y., Xu, F., Peng, H., Fang, X., Zhao, S., Li, Y., Cuevas, B., Kuo, W.L., Gray, J.W., Siciliano, M., Mills, G.B., Bast, R.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Aberrant methylation and silencing of ARHI, an imprinted tumor suppressor gene in which the function is lost in breast cancers. Yuan, J., Luo, R.Z., Fujii, S., Wang, L., Hu, W., Andreeff, M., Pan, Y., Kadota, M., Oshimura, M., Sahin, A.A., Issa, J.P., Bast, R.C., Yu, Y. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. E2F-HDAC complexes negatively regulate the tumor suppressor gene ARHI in breast cancer. Lu, Z., Luo, R.Z., Peng, H., Huang, M., Nishmoto, A., Hunt, K.K., Helin, K., Liao, W.S., Yu, Y. Oncogene (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Loss of the expression of the tumor suppressor gene ARHI is associated with progression of breast cancer. Wang, L., Hoque, A., Luo, R.Z., Yuan, J., Lu, Z., Nishimoto, A., Liu, J., Sahin, A.A., Lippman, S.M., Bast, R.C., Yu, Y. Clin. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. The tumor suppressor gene ARHI regulates autophagy and tumor dormancy in human ovarian cancer cells. Lu, Z., Luo, R.Z., Lu, Y., Zhang, X., Yu, Q., Khare, S., Kondo, S., Kondo, Y., Yu, Y., Mills, G.B., Liao, W.S., Bast, R.C. J. Clin. Invest. (2008) [Pubmed]
  6. Rig is a novel Ras-related protein and potential neural tumor suppressor. Ellis, C.A., Vos, M.D., Howell, H., Vallecorsa, T., Fults, D.W., Clark, G.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Reactivation of the silenced and imprinted alleles of ARHI is associated with increased histone H3 acetylation and decreased histone H3 lysine 9 methylation. Fujii, S., Luo, R.Z., Yuan, J., Kadota, M., Oshimura, M., Dent, S.R., Kondo, Y., Issa, J.P., Bast, R.C., Yu, Y. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Biochemistry and Biology of ARHI (DIRAS3), an Imprinted Tumor Suppressor Gene Whose Expression Is Lost in Ovarian and Breast Cancers. Yu, Y., Luo, R., Lu, Z., Wei Feng, W., Badgwell, D., Issa, J.P., Rosen, D.G., Liu, J., Bast, R.C. Meth. Enzymol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. ARHI is a Ras-related small G-protein with a novel N-terminal extension that inhibits growth of ovarian and breast cancers. Luo, R.Z., Fang, X., Marquez, R., Liu, S.Y., Mills, G.B., Liao, W.S., Yu, Y., Bast, R.C. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. The human ARHI tumor suppressor gene inhibits lactation and growth in transgenic mice. Xu, F., Xia, W., Luo, R.Z., Peng, H., Zhao, S., Dai, J., Long, Y., Zou, L., Le, W., Liu, J., Parlow, A.F., Hung, M.C., Bast, R.C., Yu, Y. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. Weber, F., Aldred, M.A., Morrison, C.D., Plass, C., Frilling, A., Broelsch, C.E., Waite, K.A., Eng, C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. ARHI is the center of allelic deletion on chromosome 1p31 in ovarian and breast cancers. Peng, H., Xu, F., Pershad, R., Hunt, K.K., Frazier, M.L., Berchuck, A., Gray, J.W., Hogg, D., Bast, R.C., Yu, Y. Int. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. A Ras homologue member I directly inhibits signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 translocation and activity in human breast and ovarian cancer cells. Nishimoto, A., Yu, Y., Lu, Z., Mao, X., Ren, Z., Watowich, S.S., Mills, G.B., Liao, W.S., Chen, X., Bast, R.C., Luo, R.Z. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Association of breast cancer DNA methylation profiles with hormone receptor status and response to tamoxifen. Widschwendter, M., Siegmund, K.D., Müller, H.M., Fiegl, H., Marth, C., Müller-Holzner, E., Jones, P.A., Laird, P.W. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Genomic structure and promoter characterization of an imprinted tumor suppressor gene ARHI. Luo, R.Z., Peng, H., Xu, F., Bao, J., Pang, Y., Pershad, R., Issa, J.P., Liao, W.S., Bast, R.C., Yu, Y. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Genetic factors in ovarian carcinoma. Li, A.J., Karlan, B.Y. Current oncology reports. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Reexpression of the tumor suppressor gene ARHI induces apoptosis in ovarian and breast cancer cells through a caspase-independent calpain-dependent pathway. Bao, J.J., Le, X.F., Wang, R.Y., Yuan, J., Wang, L., Atkinson, E.N., LaPushin, R., Andreeff, M., Fang, B., Yu, Y., Bast, R.C. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities