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Gene Review

ptsG  -  fused glucose-specific PTS enzymes: IIB...

Escherichia coli str. K-12 substr. MG1655

Synonyms: CR, ECK1087, JW1087, car, cat, ...
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Disease relevance of ptsG

  • Both genes can be stably maintained in Escherichia coli cells and restore the ability to ferment glucose to ptsG deletion mutants of E. coli [1].
  • In contrast to ptsl mutants in members of the Enterobacteriaceae, the defective growth of B. subtilis ptsl mutants on glycerol was not restored by an insertion in the ptsG gene which eliminated IIGlc [2].
  • Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the ptsG gene of Bacillus subtilis [3].
  • The production of recombinant Rhodobacter sphaeroides aminolevulinate (ALA) synthase was optimized in two strains of Escherichia coli: the wild-type strain MG1655, and a ptsG mutant AFP111 [4].
  • Comamonas testosteroni 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase (3 alpha-HSD/CR) is a key enzyme in the degradation of steroid compounds in soil and may therefore play a significant role in the bioremediation of hormonally active compounds in the environment [5].

High impact information on ptsG

  • II-BGlc, a glucose receptor of the bacterial phosphotransferase system: molecular cloning of ptsG and purification of the receptor from an overproducing strain of Escherichia coli [6].
  • In the present experiments, the Escherichia coli ptsG locus, which encodes II-BGlc, was isolated from a transducing phage library and subcloned into plasmid vectors [6].
  • The resulting plasmids complement the following phenotypic defects of ptsG mutants: growth on glucose, uptake and phosphorylation of methyl alpha-D-glucoside, and repression of the utilization of non-PTS sugars by methyl alpha-glucoside [6].
  • However, when transformed with pTSGH11 (encoding ptsG) or pAP2, this organism provided membranes that contained either the PtsG or AglA transporters, respectively [7].
  • In addition, 3 alpha-HSD/CR mediates the carbonyl reduction of non-steroidal aldehydes and ketones [5].

Chemical compound and disease context of ptsG


Biological context of ptsG

  • The structural gene of the permease, ptsG, has been cloned on a multicopy plasmid, and transformants constitutively overproducing the protein 10-15 times over wild-type level have been isolated [12].
  • Disruption of the ptsG gene that codes for the membrane component of the major glucose transporter (IICB(Glc)), and/or the fruF gene coding for FPr (fructose-specific hybrid phosphotransferase protein), did not affect the phosphorylation state of IIA(Glc) [13].
  • Genes encoding the circularly permuted precursors U(Cdelta)-IIA(Glc)-U(Ndelta) and U(Cdelta)-IICB(Glc)-U(Ndelta) were assembled from DNA fragments encoding the 3' and 5' segments of the recA intein of M. tuberculosis and crr and ptsG of E. coli, respectively [14].
  • A 13-kilobase pair fragment of V. furnissii DNA was found to impart a Glc+, Man+ phenotype to Escherichia coli ptsG ptsM mutants, and encodes the mannose transporter, ptsM, of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system [15].
  • We report here cloning of the complete ptsG gene of B. subtilis and determination of the nucleotide sequence of the 5' end [3].

Associations of ptsG with chemical compounds

  • This in silico analysis predicted that disrupting the genes for three pyruvate forming enzymes, ptsG, pykF, and pykA, allows enhanced succinic acid production [16].
  • The result is that ptsG expression is very similar in glucose-grown cultures of wild-type and mlc strains [17].
  • Growth of B. subtilis ptsG mutants, lacking IIGlc, was not impaired on glycerol [2].
  • Antibodies were generated in rabbits against the entire 3alpha-HSD/CR protein, and may now be used for evaluating the pattern of steroid induction in C. testosteroni on the protein level [18].
  • The enzyme also catalyzes the carbonyl reduction of nonsteroidal aldehydes and ketones such as metyrapone, p-nitrobenzaldehyde and a novel insecticide (NKI 42255), and, based on this pluripotent substrate specificity, was named 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase (3alpha-HSD/CR) [18].

Other interactions of ptsG

  • The mlc gene encodes a transcriptional regulator that has been shown to affect the expression of manXYZ and malT. ptsG mRNA levels are lower in the mlc strain grown on glucose than in the same strain grown on glycerol [17].
  • A ptsG ptsM glk mutant which cannot grow on glucose can accumulate [14C]glucose via galactose permeases [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ptsG

  • Upon gel permeation chromatography the purified enzyme elutes as a 49.4 kDa protein revealing for the first time the dimeric nature of 3alpha-HSD/CR of C. testosteroni [18].


  1. Cloning and sequencing of two genes from Staphylococcus carnosus coding for glucose-specific PTS and their expression in Escherichia coli K-12. Christiansen, I., Hengstenberg, W. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. The glucose permease of the phosphotransferase system of Bacillus subtilis: evidence for IIGlc and IIIGlc domains. Gonzy-Tréboul, G., de Waard, J.H., Zagorec, M., Postma, P.W. Mol. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the ptsG gene of Bacillus subtilis. Zagorec, M., Postma, P.W. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Optimization of recombinant aminolevulinate synthase production in Escherichia coli using factorial design. Xie, L., Hall, D., Eiteman, M.A., Altman, E. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification and characterization of a novel translational repressor of the steroid-inducible 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase gene in Comamonas testosteroni. Xiong, G., Martin, H.J., Maser, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. II-BGlc, a glucose receptor of the bacterial phosphotransferase system: molecular cloning of ptsG and purification of the receptor from an overproducing strain of Escherichia coli. Bouma, C.L., Meadow, N.D., Stover, E.W., Roseman, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Genetic requirements for growth of Escherichia coli K12 on methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside and the five alpha-D-glucosyl-D-fructose isomers of sucrose. Pikis, A., Hess, S., Arnold, I., Erni, B., Thompson, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Staphylococcal phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system--two highly similar glucose permeases in Staphylococcus carnosus with different glucoside specificity: protein engineering in vivo? Christiansen, I., Hengstenberg, W. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Sugar transport by the marine chitinolytic bacterium Vibrio furnissii. Molecular cloning and analysis of the glucose and N-acetylglucosamine permeases. Bouma, C.L., Roseman, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Use of catabolite repression mutants for fermentation of sugar mixtures to ethanol. Nichols, N.N., Dien, B.S., Bothast, R.J. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of galactose permease and pyruvate carboxylase in Escherichia coli ptsG mutant increases the growth rate and succinate yield under anaerobic conditions. Wang, Q., Wu, C., Chen, T., Chen, X., Zhao, X. Biotechnol. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Glucose-permease of the bacterial phosphotransferase system. Gene cloning, overproduction, and amino acid sequence of enzyme IIGlc. Erni, B., Zanolari, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  13. CRP down-regulates adenylate cyclase activity by reducing the level of phosphorylated IIA(Glc), the glucose-specific phosphotransferase protein, in Escherichia coli. Takahashi, H., Inada, T., Postma, P., Aiba, H. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Intein-mediated cyclization of a soluble and a membrane protein in vivo: function and stability. Siebold, C., Erni, B. Biophys. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Sugar transport by the marine chitinolytic bacterium Vibrio furnissii. Molecular cloning and analysis of the mannose/glucose permease. Bouma, C.L., Roseman, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for enhanced production of succinic acid, based on genome comparison and in silico gene knockout simulation. Lee, S.J., Lee, D.Y., Kim, T.Y., Kim, B.H., Lee, J., Lee, S.Y. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Expression of ptsG, the gene for the major glucose PTS transporter in Escherichia coli, is repressed by Mlc and induced by growth on glucose. Plumbridge, J. Mol. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. Functional expression, purification, and characterization of 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase from Comamonas testosteroni. Maser, E., Möbus, E., Xiong, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Maltose and maltotriose can be formed endogenously in Escherichia coli from glucose and glucose-1-phosphate independently of enzymes of the maltose system. Decker, K., Peist, R., Reidl, J., Kossmann, M., Brand, B., Boos, W. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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