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MeSH Review

Neck Muscles

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Disease relevance of Neck Muscles


Psychiatry related information on Neck Muscles

  • AIMS: To document and compare the intensity, localization, and quality of pain evoked by glutamate injections into the human masseter or splenius muscles and to determine the effect of glutamate-evoked pain on the pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in both jaw and neck muscles [6].
  • CONCLUSION: Proprioception in the eye and neck muscles participates in visual space localization, but the effects of proprioceptive activation were differed in normal subjects from those in patients having constant strabismus [7].

High impact information on Neck Muscles

  • Decrease of contralateral neglect by neck muscle vibration and spatial orientation of trunk midline [8].
  • METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized study we recorded the EMG activities of 420 neck muscles in 42 patients with CD before and after treatment with BTA or trihexyphenidyl [9].
  • The PPTs were measured bilaterally in the trapezius muscles (local pain area) and posterolateral neck muscles (referred pain area) after glutamate injection in healthy and age-matched males and females (each n=14) [10].
  • We did not detect signs of involvement of hand or finger extensors and neck muscles, seen in the original family with MPD1 [11].
  • Medullary stimulation-induced suppression of neck muscle tone was blocked after pontine lidocaine microinjection [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Neck Muscles

  • In the present study, responses were recorded from the splanchnic (sympathetic), hypoglossal (inspiratory) and abdominal (expiratory) nerves during stimulation of the C2 dorsal root ganglion or C2 or C3 nerve branches innervating dorsal neck muscles [13].
  • Infiltration of lidocaine deep in the neck muscles in the vicinity of the C2 root did not alleviate headache, but caused vertigo [14].

Biological context of Neck Muscles


Anatomical context of Neck Muscles


Associations of Neck Muscles with chemical compounds

  • Trapezius motoneurons at the same segmental level, regardless of which head of the trapezius muscle they innervated, have similar dendritic trees whose structure differs from those of neighbouring dorsal neck muscle motoneurons in C2, C3, and C4 [20].
  • Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from flexor and extensor muscles of the fore- and hindlimbs as well as from back and neck muscles [21].
  • However, even though the animal behaviorally began to reemerge from the anesthetic state after this 5-10-min period, neck muscle (neck motoneuron) activity recovered more slowly and remained significantly suppressed for up to 23 min after thiopental administration [22].
  • Motoneurons that were labelled retrogradely from rhomboideus nerve bundles formed a single, long column in the ventral horn from C4 to C6, lateral to previously studied motor nuclei supplying deep neck muscles [23].
  • Isotonic saline injection into the neck muscle (n = 11) or hypertonic saline injection into a hindpaw muscle (n = 10) did neither change the reflex integral nor the threshold [24].

Gene context of Neck Muscles

  • Moreover, neck muscle projections to the cuneate nucleus were, in part, coincident with those previously demonstrated for the extraocular muscles (Porter: J. Comp. Neurol. 247:133-143, '86) [25].
  • The neuronal activation pattern following local nerve growth factor (NGF) administration into semispinal neck muscles in anaesthetized mice was investigated using Fos protein immunohistochemistry [26].
  • The distribution of weakness more commonly involved neck muscles in MuSK antibody-positive patients, and limb muscles in MuSK antibody-negative patients [27].
  • Cho/Cr ratios for NPC lesions were higher than those for normal neck muscles, for which values ranged from 0 to 0.97 and 0 to 1.1 at TE 136 and 272, respectively [28].
  • The patient had rhythmic contractions not only of tensor veli palatini but also of facial, lingual, temporalis, pharyngeal, and neck muscles [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Neck Muscles

  • Animals implanted with cerebrocortical and dorsal neck muscle electrodes were continuously monitored by the EEG for 12 hr after i.p. injections of dl-fenfluramine hydrochloride (1, 5 and 10 mg/kg) [30].
  • After intramuscular injection of isotonic saline into the right semispinal neck muscle (20 microl), the JOR remained unchanged (n = 10) [31].
  • RESULTS: Intravenous administration of 15 mg/kg, but not 5 mg/kg, of thiopental to awake cats induced general anesthesia that was characterized by 5-10 min of cortical synchronization, reflected as large-amplitude slow-wave events and neck muscle atonia [22].
  • Although individual dose titration and muscle selection is desirable, this study demonstrated that a dose of 500 units of Dysport injected into clinically identified neck muscles without electromyographic guidance is safe and effective in the treatment of patients with the major clinical types of cervical dystonia [32].
  • Empirical demonstration of amelioration of CTS symptoms by means of surface electromyography (sEMG) retraining of dysfunctional neck muscle patterns is reviewed as support for the hypothesized link [33].


  1. Neck muscle activity in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. De Troyer, A., Peche, R., Yernault, J.C., Estenne, M. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Neck muscle spindle activity in the decerebrate, unparalyzed cat: dynamics and influence of vestibular stimulation. Kasper, J., Wilson, V.J., Yamagata, Y., Yates, B.J. J. Neurophysiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Truncal muscle tonus in progressive supranuclear palsy. Tanigawa, A., Komiyama, A., Hasegawa, O. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of subcutaneous melatonin implants on reproductive seasonality of farmed fallow deer (Dama dama). Asher, G.W., Barrell, G.K., Adam, J.L., Staples, L.D. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Quantitative assessment of botulinum toxin treatment in 43 patients with head tremor. Wissel, J., Masuhr, F., Schelosky, L., Ebersbach, G., Poewe, W. Mov. Disord. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Pain effects of glutamate injections into human jaw or neck muscles. Svensson, P., Wang, K., Arendt-Nielsen, L., Cairns, B.E., Sessle, B.J. Journal of orofacial pain. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Changes of visual localization induced by eye and neck muscle vibration in normal and strabismic subjects. Han, Y., Lennerstrand, G. Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Decrease of contralateral neglect by neck muscle vibration and spatial orientation of trunk midline. Karnath, H.O., Christ, K., Hartje, W. Brain (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Electromyography in cervical dystonia: changes after botulinum and trihexyphenidyl. Brans, J.W., Aramideh, M., Koelman, J.H., Lindeboom, R., Speelman, J.D., Ongerboer de Visser, B.W. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Gender differences in pain modulation evoked by repeated injections of glutamate into the human trapezius muscle. Ge, H.Y., Madeleine, P., Arendt-Nielsen, L. Pain (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. The second kindred with autosomal dominant distal myopathy linked to chromosome 14q: genetic and clinical analysis. Hedera, P., Petty, E.M., Bui, M.R., Blaivas, M., Fink, J.K. Arch. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Inactivation of the pons blocks medullary-induced muscle tone suppression in the decerebrate cat. Kohyama, J., Lai, Y.Y., Siegel, J.M. Sleep. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Influences of neck afferents on sympathetic and respiratory nerve activity. Bolton, P.S., Kerman, I.A., Woodring, S.F., Yates, B.J. Brain Res. Bull. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Vestibular schwannoma surgery and headache. Levo, H., Blomstedt, G., Pyykkö, I. Acta oto-laryngologica. Supplementum. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Electroencephalographic activity in children under enflurane anesthesia. Rosén, I., Söderberg, M. Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Increased intramuscular concentration of bradykinin increases the static fusimotor drive to muscle spindles in neck muscles of the cat. Pedersen, J., Sjölander, P., Wenngren, B.I., Johansson, H. Pain (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Quantitative autoradiography of parathyroid glands in rats with carbon-14-labeled amino acids. Wortman, J.A., Alavi, A., Attie, M., Yudd, A.P., Johnston, S.A., Greenberg, J. J. Nucl. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Quantitative analysis of cervical musculature in rats: histochemical composition and motor pool organization. II. Deep dorsal muscles. Callister, R.J., Brichta, A.M., Peterson, E.H. J. Comp. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. A comparative study of neck muscle motor neurons in a cricket and a locust. Honegger, H.W., Altman, J.S., Kien, J., Müller-Tautz, R., Pollerberg, E. J. Comp. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Dendritic distribution of motoneurons innervating the three heads of the trapezius muscle in the cat. Vanner, S.J., Rose, P.K. J. Comp. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Discharge patterns of reticulospinal and other reticular neurons in chronic, unrestrained cats walking on a treadmill. Drew, T., Dubuc, R., Rossignol, S. J. Neurophysiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Transmission through the dorsal spinocerebellar and spinoreticular tracts: wakefulness versus thiopental anesthesia. Soja, P.J., Taepavarapruk, N., Pang, W., Cairns, B.E., McErlane, S.A., Fragoso, M.C. Anesthesiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Distribution of motoneurons supplying feline neck muscles taking origin from the shoulder girdle. Liinamaa, T.L., Keane, J., Richmond, F.J. J. Comp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Long-term potentiation of orofacial sensorimotor processing by noxious input from the semispinal neck muscle in mice. Makowska, A., Panfil, C., Ellrich, J. Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Neck muscle afferent projections to the brainstem of the monkey: implications for the neural control of gaze. Edney, D.P., Porter, J.D. J. Comp. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Brainstem and cervical spinal cord Fos immunoreactivity evoked by nerve growth factor injection into neck muscles in mice. Panfil, C., Makowska, A., Ellrich, J. Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Clinical comparison of muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibody-positive and -negative myasthenic patients. Zhou, L., McConville, J., Chaudhry, V., Adams, R.N., Skolasky, R.L., Vincent, A., Drachman, D.B. Muscle Nerve (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. In vivo proton MR spectroscopy of primary and nodal nasopharyngeal carcinoma. King, A.D., Yeung, D.K., Ahuja, A.T., Leung, S.F., Tse, G.M., van Hasselt, A.C. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Case of essential palatal tremor: atypical features and remarkable benefit from botulinum toxin injection. Cho, J.W., Chu, K., Jeon, B.S. Mov. Disord. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Sleep suppressant action of fenfluramine in rats. I. Relation to postsynaptic serotonergic stimulation. Fornal, C., Radulovacki, M. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Nerve growth factor injection into semispinal neck muscle evokes sustained facilitation of the jaw-opening reflex in anesthetized mice -- possible implications for tension-type headache. Makowska, A., Panfil, C., Ellrich, J. Exp. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Efficacy and safety of a standardised 500 unit dose of Dysport (clostridium botulinum toxin type A haemaglutinin complex) in a heterogeneous cervical dystonia population: results of a prospective, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. Wissel, J., Kanovsky, P., Ruzicka, E., Bares, M., Hortova, H., Streitova, H., Jech, R., Roth, J., Brenneis, C., Müller, J., Schnider, P., Auff, E., Richardson, A., Poewe, W. J. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Potential contributions of neck muscle dysfunctions to initiation and maintenance of carpal tunnel syndrome. Donaldson, C.C., Nelson, D.V., Skubick, D.L., Clasby, R.G. Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback. (1998) [Pubmed]
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