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Chemical Compound Review

Exceglan     benzo[d]isoxazol-3- ylmethanesulfonamide

Synonyms: Excegram, Excegran, Zonegran, Tremode, Trerief, ...
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Disease relevance of Zonegran

  • Zonisamide for weight loss in obese adults: a randomized controlled trial [1].
  • In an intent-to-treat analysis using the available data for all randomized participants with the last observation carried forward, the zonisamide group lost more body weight than the placebo group (mean [SE], 5.9 [0.8] kg [6.0% loss] vs 0.9 [0.4] kg [1.0% loss]; t = 5.5; P<.001) during the 16-week period [1].
  • Long-term response to zonisamide in patients with West syndrome [2].
  • Zonisamide in the treatment of binge-eating disorder: an open-label, prospective trial [3].
  • Additional pharmacokinetic studies will help to establish the change in pharmacokinetic profile that occurs with dosage titration in patients outside Japan. Among 700 patients treated with zonisamide in Europe/US, a high incidence of renal calculi (1.9%) has been noted, however, the causal relationship to zonisamide is disputed [4].

Psychiatry related information on Zonegran


High impact information on Zonegran

  • Weight loss was an adverse effect associated with zonisamide treatment in epilepsy clinical trials [1].
  • CONCLUSION: In this short-term, preliminary trial, zonisamide and hypocaloric diet resulted in more weight loss than placebo and hypocaloric diet in the treatment of obesity [1].
  • A longitudinal mixed-model regression for weight change controlling for age, race, sex, body mass index, and percent body fat estimated that zonisamide treatment over the 16-week study duration was associated with significantly greater weight loss than was placebo (t = 6.4; P<.001) [1].
  • The metabolism of zonisamide to SMAP was almost completely inhibited by anti-P450 3A4 antibody but not by anti-P450 2C9 or anti-P450 2D6 antibodies, suggesting that the amount of P450 3A enzyme may be a major factor influencing the level of metabolism of zonisamide to SMAP in human liver microsomes [10].
  • Characterization of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 involved in the reductive metabolism of zonisamide [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Zonegran


Biological context of Zonegran


Anatomical context of Zonegran


Associations of Zonegran with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Zonegran


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Zonegran


  1. Zonisamide for weight loss in obese adults: a randomized controlled trial. Gadde, K.M., Franciscy, D.M., Wagner, H.R., Krishnan, K.R. JAMA (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Long-term response to zonisamide in patients with West syndrome. Suzuki, Y., Imai, K., Toribe, Y., Ueda, H., Yanagihara, K., Shimono, K., Okinaga, T., Ono, J., Nagai, T., Matsuoka, T., Tagawa, T., Abe, J., Morita, Y., Fujikawa, Y., Arai, H., Mano, T., Okada, S. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Zonisamide in the treatment of binge-eating disorder: an open-label, prospective trial. McElroy, S.L., Kotwal, R., Hudson, J.I., Nelson, E.B., Keck, P.E. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Zonisamide. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in epilepsy. Peters, D.H., Sorkin, E.M. Drugs (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. A preliminary open-label study of zonisamide treatment for bipolar depression in 10 patients. Anand, A., Bukhari, L., Jennings, S.A., Lee, C., Kamat, M., Shekhar, A., Nurnberger, J.I., Lightfoot, J. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. An open prospective study of zonisamide in acute bipolar depression. Ghaemi, S.N., Zablotsky, B., Filkowski, M.M., Dunn, R.T., Pardo, T.B., Isenstein, E., Baldassano, C.F. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Zonisamide blocks T-type calcium channel in cultured neurons of rat cerebral cortex. Suzuki, S., Kawakami, K., Nishimura, S., Watanabe, Y., Yagi, K., Seino, M., Miyamoto, K. Epilepsy Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Centrally mediated antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects of zonisamide following partial nerve injury in the mouse. Tanabe, M., Sakaue, A., Takasu, K., Honda, M., Ono, H. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Visual hallucinations associated with zonisamide. Akman, C.I., Goodkin, H.P., Rogers, D.P., Riviello, J.J. Pharmacotherapy (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 involved in the reductive metabolism of zonisamide. Nakasa, H., Komiya, M., Ohmori, S., Rikihisa, T., Kiuchi, M., Kitada, M. Mol. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Newer anticonvulsants in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Yatham, L.N. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Efficacy of newer anticonvulsant medications in bipolar spectrum mood disorders. Evins, A.E. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Pharmacotherapy for obesity. Ioannides-Demos, L.L., Proietto, J., McNeil, J.J. Drugs (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. The new antiepileptic drugs: pharmacological and clinical aspects. Gatti, G., Bonomi, I., Jannuzzi, G., Perucca, E. Curr. Pharm. Des. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Properties of antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Patsalos, P.N. Epilepsia (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Competitive binding enzyme immunoassay for zonisamide, a new antiepileptic drug, with selected paired-enzyme labeled antigen and antibody. Kalbe, K., Nishimura, S., Ishii, H., Sunahara, N., Naruto, S., Kurooka, S. Clin. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Studies on 3-substituted 1,2-benzisoxazole derivatives. 6. Syntheses of 3-(sulfamoylmethyl)-1,2-benzisoxazole derivatives and their anticonvulsant activities. Uno, H., Kurokawa, M., Masuda, Y., Nishimura, H. J. Med. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. The clinical pharmacokinetics of the newer antiepileptic drugs. Focus on topiramate, zonisamide and tiagabine. Perucca, E., Bialer, M. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of zonisamide (AD-810) on tungstic acid gel-induced thalamic generalized seizures and conjugated estrogen-induced cortical spike-wave discharges in cats. Ito, T., Hori, M., Kadokawa, T. Epilepsia (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Developmental and therapeutic pharmacology of antiepileptic drugs. Miura, H. Epilepsia (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Protective effect of zonisamide, an antiepileptic drug, against transient focal cerebral ischemia with middle cerebral artery occlusion-reperfusion in rats. Minato, H., Kikuta, C., Fujitani, B., Masuda, Y. Epilepsia (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Lack of pharmacokinetic interactions between steady-state zonisamide and valproic acid in patients with epilepsy. Ragueneau-Majlessi, I., Levy, R.H., Brodie, M., Smith, D., Shah, J., Grundy, J.S. Clinical pharmacokinetics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Capillary electrophoresis for therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptics. Kataoka, Y., Makino, K., Oishi, R. Electrophoresis (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Pharmacokinetics and drug interactions with zonisamide. Sills, G., Brodie, M. Epilepsia (2007) [Pubmed]
  25. Newer anticonvulsant drugs: role of pharmacology, drug interactions and adverse reactions in drug choice. Natsch, S., Hekster, Y.A., Keyser, A., Deckers, C.L., Meinardi, H., Renier, W.O. Drug safety : an international journal of medical toxicology and drug experience. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of the transmembrane isozyme XIV with sulfonamides. Nishimori, I., Vullo, D., Innocenti, A., Scozzafava, A., Mastrolorenzo, A., Supuran, C.T. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Differential catalytic properties in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous substrates among CYP3A enzymes expressed in COS-7 cells. Ohmori, S., Nakasa, H., Asanome, K., Kurose, Y., Ishii, I., Hosokawa, M., Kitada, M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Prediction of drug-drug interactions of zonisamide metabolism in humans from in vitro data. Nakasa, H., Nakamura, H., Ono, S., Tsutsui, M., Kiuchi, M., Ohmori, S., Kitada, M. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Carbamazepine pharmacokinetics are not affected by zonisamide: in vitro mechanistic study and in vivo clinical study in epileptic patients. Ragueneau-Majlessi, I., Levy, R.H., Bergen, D., Garnett, W., Rosenfeld, W., Mather, G., Shah, J., Grundy, J.S. Epilepsy Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Zonisamide is an effective inhibitor of the cytosolic isozyme II and mitochondrial isozyme V: solution and X-ray crystallographic studies. De Simone, G., Di Fiore, A., Menchise, V., Pedone, C., Antel, J., Casini, A., Scozzafava, A., Wurl, M., Supuran, C.T. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Determination of effects of antiepileptic drugs on SNAREs-mediated hippocampal monoamine release using in vivo microdialysis. Murakami, T., Okada, M., Kawata, Y., Zhu, G., Kamata, A., Kaneko, S. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Interaction between Ca2+, K+, carbamazepine and zonisamide on hippocampal extracellular glutamate monitored with a microdialysis electrode. Okada, M., Kawata, Y., Mizuno, K., Wada, K., Kondo, T., Kaneko, S. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Zonisamide. Leppik, I.E. Epilepsia (1999) [Pubmed]
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