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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Neptune

  • OBJECTIVES: To assess a link between resistance to Triton X-100 induced autolysis (TIA) and lowered atl expression in a collection of clinical glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (GISA) and heterogeneous GISA (hGISA) [1].
  • The dot-immunoassay has been adapted for rapid detection and partial characterization of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked, transmembrane, and intracellular proteins in Triton X-100 (TX-100) extracts of lymphoma cells and intestinal tissue [2].
  • Antigens extracted from Sendai virus by solubilization with Triton X-100 (Tx) [3].

High impact information on Neptune

  • The bulk of apical CD73 ( approximately 60%) was released from the cell surface by treatment with 1% Triton X-100 (TX-100) at 4 degrees C, but such release was not affected by pretreatment with ligand or by prior, antibody-mediated cross-linking of CD73 [4].
  • In this report, we confirm that TRAF2 translocates to a Triton X-100 (TX)-insoluble compartment upon TNF-R2 engagement [5].
  • Lck is also a membrane protein, and approximately half of the membrane-associated Lck is associated with a glycolipid-enriched membrane (GEM) fraction that is resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100 (TX-100) [6].
  • Previous studies of cadherin/catenin complex assembly and organization relied on the coimmunoprecipitation of the complex with cadherin antibodies, and were limited to the analysis of the Triton X-100 (TX-100)-soluble fraction of these proteins [7].
  • In chicken embryo erythroid cells, newly synthesized vimentin first enters a Triton X-100 (TX-100)-soluble pool and subsequently assembles posttranslationally into TX-100-insoluble vimentin filaments (Blikstad I., and E. Lazarides, J. Cell Biol., 96:1803-1808) [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Neptune


Biological context of Neptune

  • Using Triton X-100 (TX-100) as a representative HA, we found that the mtrCDE efflux pump operon could be induced to higher levels of expression when an HA-sensitive strain was exposed to sublethal concentrations of this non-ionic detergent and the structurally related spermicide, nonoxynol-9 [10].
  • In this study we found that a single base pair deletion in a 13 bp inverted repeat sequence within the mtrR promoter resulted in increased resistance of gonococci to both crystal violet (CV) and erythromycin (ERY) as well as to the more lipophilic non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100) [11].
  • The Triton insoluble floating fraction (TIFF) was isolated using liver from each genotype and analyzed for caveolin-1 expression [12].

Anatomical context of Neptune

  • When the neutrophils were treated with Triton X-100 (Sigma Chemical Co, St Louis, MO) to evaluate cytoskeletal associations of proteins, the 150 phosphotyrosine protein partitioned with the Triton X-100 insoluble cytoskeleton (TICS), and the 70-Kd protein partitioned with both the TICS and Triton X-100 soluble proteins [13].
  • Merlin resists solubilization by the detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100), a property commonly attributed to association with the cytoskeleton [14].
  • Immunoblotting detected Munc18-c mainly in the Triton X-100-soluble plasma membrane (TS-PM) and the Triton X-100-insoluble low density microsomal (TI-LDM) fraction [15].
  • Crude synaptic membranes treated with Triton X-100 (TX) bound gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to two classes of receptor site in Na+-free 10 mM-Tris-sulfate buffer (pH 7.4), but to only a single class of receptor site in 10 mM Tris-sulfate buffer (pH 7.4), containing 150 mM-NaCl [16].
  • Surprisingly, we also found that spermatozoa treated with 0.25% Triton X-100 (TX) and 20 mM MgCl2 overnight resulted in the same type of degradation, suggesting that sperm nuclei have a mechanism for digesting their own DNA at the bases of the loop domains [17].

Associations of Neptune with chemical compounds

  • GPI-anchored proteins were mainly resistant to Triton X-100 (TX-100) extraction at 4 degrees C but fully soluble in n-octyl-glucoside [18].
  • Properties of such gradient fractions included Triton X-100 (TX-100) insolubility, light scattering at 600 nm, buoyant density of approximately 1.08 g/cm(3) and increased cholesterol content compared to high density fractions [19].
  • To investigate the association of the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) Env protein with lipid rafts, we compared wild-type and palmitoylation-deficient mutant Env proteins by using extraction with the mild detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100) followed by a sucrose gradient flotation assay [20].
  • Comparisons were made of proteins extracted with four lysis buffers: (i) Celis buffer containing 9.8 M urea and 2% Igepal CA-630; (ii) 1% Triton X (TX)-100; (iii) 1.7% TX-114 followed by phase partitioning; or (iv) 1 M NaCl [21].
  • In order to investigate the structural interactions of nonionic detergents with bovine heart mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX), a series of hydrophilic chemical modification reagents were used to map regions on COX which are not shielded by dodecyl beta-D-maltoside (DM), Triton X-100 (TX-100), and Tween 80 (TW-80) [22].

Gene context of Neptune

  • The expression of annexin II was significantly increased in homozygous liver homogenates and the Triton X-100 insoluble floating fraction (TIFF) [23].
  • In resting platelets, the major PLCs such as PLCbeta2, PLCbeta3a (155 kDa), and PLCgamma2 and the minor PLCs (PLCbeta1 and PLCgamma1) were located in the Triton X-100-soluble (Tx.Sol) fraction and the membrane skeleton, whereas PLCbeta3b (140 kDa) was present only in Tx.Sol fraction when examined by Western immunoblotting [24].
  • In the present study, we have evaluated the influence of the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 (TX-100) on the functional stability and conformational transitions of PAI-1 [25].
  • When acetone-extracted whole cells or cytoskeletons, made by extracting with Triton in stabilizing buffer (Tsb), are fixed with formaldehyde, binding of the MAB Tp-GFAP1 to GFAP is abolished or greatly reduced [26].
  • Defined by their common membrane-linkage motif, AlkPase, FcRIIIB, and DAF can be released from the lipid bilayer by the action of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C and are relatively resistant to low temperature extraction with Triton X-100 (TX-100) [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Neptune


  1. Reduced expression of the atl autolysin gene and susceptibility to autolysis in clinical heterogeneous glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hGISA) and GISA strains. Wootton, M., Bennett, P.M., MacGowan, A.P., Walsh, T.R. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Evaluation by dot-immunoassay of the differential distribution of cell surface and intracellular proteins in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-rich plasma membrane domains. Ilangumaran, S., Arni, S., Chicheportiche, Y., Briol, A., Hoessli, D.C. Anal. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Immunoelectrophoretic characterization of Sendai virus antigens. Portocală, R., Ghyka, G., Samuel, I. Virologie. (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Surface expression, polarization, and functional significance of CD73 in human intestinal epithelia. Strohmeier, G.R., Lencer, W.I., Patapoff, T.W., Thompson, L.F., Carlson, S.L., Moe, S.J., Carnes, D.K., Mrsny, R.J., Madara, J.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. TNF-alpha induced c-IAP1/TRAF2 complex translocation to a Ubc6-containing compartment and TRAF2 ubiquitination. Wu, C.J., Conze, D.B., Li, X., Ying, S.X., Hanover, J.A., Ashwell, J.D. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Exclusion of CD45 inhibits activity of p56lck associated with glycolipid-enriched membrane domains. Rodgers, W., Rose, J.K. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Dynamics of cadherin/catenin complex formation: novel protein interactions and pathways of complex assembly. Hinck, L., Näthke, I.S., Papkoff, J., Nelson, W.J. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Canavanine inhibits vimentin assembly but not its synthesis in chicken embryo erythroid cells. Moon, R.T., Lazarides, E. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Triton X-100-induced lipoteichoic acid release is correlated with the methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Ohta, K., Komatsuzawa, H., Sugai, M., Suginaka, H. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Induction of the mtrCDE-encoded efflux pump system of Neisseria gonorrhoeae requires MtrA, an AraC-like protein. Rouquette, C., Harmon, J.B., Shafer, W.M. Mol. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Importance of lipooligosaccharide structure in determining gonococcal resistance to hydrophobic antimicrobial agents resulting from the mtr efflux system. Lucas, C.E., Hagman, K.E., Levin, J.C., Stein, D.C., Shafer, W.M. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Altered expression of caveolin-1 and increased cholesterol in detergent insoluble membrane fractions from liver in mice with Niemann-Pick disease type C. Garver, W.S., Erickson, R.P., Wilson, J.M., Colton, T.L., Hossain, G.S., Kozloski, M.A., Heidenreich, R.A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces a staurosporine inhibitable tyrosine phosphorylation of unique neutrophil proteins. Berkow, R.L. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Activation of the tumor suppressor merlin modulates its interaction with lipid rafts. Stickney, J.T., Bacon, W.C., Rojas, M., Ratner, N., Ip, W. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Insulin acutely regulates Munc18-c subcellular trafficking: altered response in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Nelson, B.A., Robinson, K.A., Buse, M.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of sodium and bicarbonate ions on gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor binding in synaptic membranes of rat brain. Kurioka, S., Kimura, Y., Matsuda, M. J. Neurochem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  17. Ability of hamster spermatozoa to digest their own DNA. Sotolongo, B., Lino, E., Ward, W.S. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. GPI-anchored proteins associate to form microdomains during their intracellular transport in Caco-2 cells. Garcia, M., Mirre, C., Quaroni, A., Reggio, H., Le Bivic, A. J. Cell. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Tight junctions are membrane microdomains. Nusrat, A., Parkos, C.A., Verkade, P., Foley, C.S., Liang, T.W., Innis-Whitehouse, W., Eastburn, K.K., Madara, J.L. J. Cell. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Palmitoylation of the murine leukemia virus envelope protein is critical for lipid raft association and surface expression. Li, M., Yang, C., Tong, S., Weidmann, A., Compans, R.W. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Differential extraction and enrichment of human sperm surface proteins in a proteome: identification of immunocontraceptive candidates. Shetty, J., Diekman, A.B., Jayes, F.C., Sherman, N.E., Naaby-Hansen, S., Flickinger, C.J., Herr, J.C. Electrophoresis (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Chemical labeling studies on bovine heart mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase dispersed in nonionic detergents. Estey, L.A., Lincoln, A.J., Prochaska, L.J. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. The Npc1 mutation causes an altered expression of caveolin-1, annexin II and protein kinases and phosphorylation of caveolin-1 and annexin II in murine livers. Garver, W.S., Hossain, G.S., Winscott, M.M., Heidenreich, R.A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Differential translocation of phospholipase C isozymes to integrin-mediated cytoskeletal complexes in thrombin-stimulated human platelets. Banno, Y., Nakashima, S., Ohzawa, M., Nozawa, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Modulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 by Triton X-100--identification of two consecutive conformational transitions. Gils, A., Declerck, P.J. Thromb. Haemost. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Formaldehyde sensitivity of a GFAP epitope, removed by extraction of the cytoskeleton with high salt. Bell, P.B., Rundquist, I., Svensson, I., Collins, V.P. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Solubilization of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in quiescent and stimulated neutrophils. Cain, T.J., Liu, Y., Takizawa, T., Robinson, J.M. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Detergent effects on the light-harvesting chlorophyll A/B-protein complex crystallization revealed by fluorescence depolarization. Furuichi, M., Nishimoto, E., Koga, T., Takase, A., Yamashita, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
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