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Chemical Compound Review

beta-MSH     [(7R,8S)-7-hydroxy-5,6,7,8- tetrahydro-3H...

Synonyms: Intermedina, Intermedine, Intermedinum, SureCN23464, CHEBI:5941, ...
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Disease relevance of beta-MSH


Psychiatry related information on beta-MSH


High impact information on beta-MSH

  • It is well established that the melanotropins alpha- and beta-MSH are responsible for pigment dispersion in the integumentary melanophore of lower vertebrates and that these molecules are derived from a common precursor protein, proopiocortin, by specific processing within the intermediate lobe [7].
  • As the amino acid sequence of beta-MSH is contained within the beta-LPH structure, we have now investigated the aldosterone-stimulating activity of synthetic beta-MSH [8].
  • Earlier studies have suggested that beta-melanotrophin (beta-MSH) has only weak steroidogenic potency on the adrenal gland in the rat, but recently Challis et al.5 and Rudman et al.6 have reported that alpha- and beta-MSH have a trophic action on fetal adrenal gland [8].
  • We have now isolated from a rat genomic DNA library a segment of a DNA encoding most of POMC, using as probe a mouse 144-base pair cloned cDNA fragment encoding beta-MSH and beta-endorphin [9].
  • Beta-TC3 cells transfected with the mutant POMC cDNA produced a mutant beta-MSH/beta-endorphin fusion protein [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of beta-MSH


Biological context of beta-MSH

  • The corresponding amino acid sequence translated from this mRNA revealed in the cryptic region of the precursor protein a fragment sharing a common amino acid sequence with the alpha- beta-melanotropins (alpha-MSH, beta-MSH) and thus named gamma-MSH [14].
  • Two children were found to be heterozygous for a missense mutation, R236G, which disrupts the dibasic cleavage site between beta melanocyte-stimulating hormone (beta-MSH) and beta-endorphin [10].
  • The nucleotide sequence of a 1050-base pair hybridization-positive cDNA clone was determined and the deduced amino acid sequence of Xenopus POMC revealed the sequences of Xenopus gamma-MSH, alpha-MSH, corticotropin-like intermediate lobe peptide, beta-MSH, and beta-endorphin [15].
  • At a final dilution of 1:24,000, the antiserum employed shows cross-reaction with beta hLPH but none with human beta-MSH (beta hMSH), and it is concluded that the antigenic determinant lies within the N-terminal 1-36 region of beta hLPH [16].
  • Diurnal rhythm and disappearance half-time of endogenous plasma immunoreactive beta-MSH (LPH) and ACTH in man [17].

Anatomical context of beta-MSH

  • Adrenocorticotropin, a precursor of alpha-MSH, but not the structurally unrelated beta-MSH, competitively inhibited alpha-MSH binding, suggesting that the receptor expressed on monocytes is specific for alpha-MSH [18].
  • Whole pituitary glands obtained from Day 50 and 55 fetal monkeys and separated lobes From Day 65 to 155 were extracted, fractionated, and analyzed for beta-melanotropin (beta-MSH), midportion beta-endorphin (beta-EP), and acetylated beta-EP immunoactivity [19].
  • Secretion of tumor ACTH was significantly stimulated in all cases by crude rat median eminence extract which was also effective in stimulating beta-MSH secretion associated with elevated tissue cyclic AMP levels in one [20].
  • Our results suggest that alpha-MSH, ACTH, and possibly beta-MSH, but not gamma-MSH, are capable of a physiological role in regulating human pigmentation, and that melanocytes in human skin are a specific target for these hormones [21].
  • No significant binding to human fibroblast and human carcinoma cells was seen. alpha-MSH, beta-MSH and, to a lesser extent ACTH4-10 (a part of the alpha-MSH sequence) were the only peptides able to displace labelled alpha-MSH from its binding sites, indicating the high specificity of the MSH receptor [22].

Associations of beta-MSH with other chemical compounds

  • This suggests that the control of beta-MSH secretion in man, unlike that of prolactin in man and MSH peptides in other mammals, is not predominantly inhibitory [23].
  • The effect of chlorpromazine on the secretion of immunoreactive beta-MSH and prolactin in man [23].
  • In the same patients, LVP stimulation and dexamethasone suppression tests brought about significant changes in the plasma beta-MSH and ACTH levels [2].
  • Hydrolysis, followed by oxidation, led to the N-oxides of indicine, intermedine, lycopsamine, and the new nonnatural product, respectively [24].
  • Synthetic alpha-MSH was compared to beta-MSH, ACTH1-24, ACTH4-10, beta-LPH, CLIP, CRF, MIF I, A8VP and beta-endorphin [22].

Gene context of beta-MSH

  • Structure-activity relationships of novel cyclic alpha-MSH/beta-MSH hybrid analogues that lead to potent and selective ligands for the human MC3R and human MC5R [25].
  • When the MC-2 DNA is expressed in COS-7 cells, it binds [125I]-labelled [Nle4, D-Phe7]- alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (NDP-MSH) which then could be displaced by melanotropic peptides alpha-MSH, beta-MSH, gamma-MSH and adrenocorticotropic hormone, but not by non-melanotropic peptide beta-endorphin [26].
  • Compared to wild-type beta-MSH, the variant peptide was impaired in its ability to bind to and activate signaling from the MC4R [27].
  • Consequently, the autocrine synthesis and release of the key hormones ACTH, alpha and beta-MSH and beta-endorphin takes also place in melanocytes [28].
  • To further analyze how melanotropins produce these biological effects, we investigated the regulation of the melanocortin receptor MC1R expression by alpha-MSH and ACTH using Northern blot analysis and determine the relative affinity of the receptor for the structurally similar peptides alpha-MSH, ACTH, beta-MSH, and gamma-MSH [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of beta-MSH

  • Immunocytochemical study by means of the immunoperoxidase technique and light or electron microscopy demonstrated 1-24/1-39 adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in all cases, lipotropin/melanotropin (beta-LPH/beta-MSH) in 10 cases, beta-endorphin in 8 cases, and an absence of calcitonin in all cases [29].
  • Simultaneous measurements of both beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone (beta-MSH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in extracted plasma were performed by specific radioimmunoassays [4].
  • We studied the plasma immunoreactive beta-MSH ("beta-MSH") in hemodialysis patients to determine its basal level, plasma disappearance rate, gel filtration and immunological characteristics [30].
  • A human pituitary adenoma responsible for a case of Nelson's syndrome was maintained in organ culture and the incubation medium was examined with four different RIAs; human corticotropin (ACTH), beta-MSH, lipotropin (LPH), and beta-endorphin (beta-End) [31].
  • Two-dimensional (2D) SDS-PAGE where the first dimension was run under nonreducing conditions and the second with beta-MSH, supported the contention that the 130K band was a dimeric complex of Pr65gag [32].


  1. Ectopic production of antidiuretic hormone (adh), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone (beta-MSH) by an oat cell carcinoma of the lung. Coscia, M., Brown, H.D., Miller, M., Tanaka, K., Nicholson, W.E., Parks, K.R., Orth, D.N. Am. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  2. Synthetic MIF has no effect on beta-MSH and ACTH hypersecretion in Nelson's syndrome. Donnadieu, M., Laurent, M.F., Luton, J.P., Bricaire, H., Girard, F., Binoux, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Dual regulation of beta-melanotropin receptor function and adenylate cyclase by calcium and guanosine nucleotides in the M2R melanoma cell line. Gerst, J.E., Sole, J., Salomon, Y. Mol. Pharmacol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Plasma levels of beta-MSH and ACTH during acute stresses and metyrapone administration in man. Hirata, Y., Sakamoto, N., Matsukura, S., Imura, H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent rats intracerebroventricularly injected with ACTH1-24 and with beta-MSH. Bertolini, A., Poggioli, R., Fratta, W. Life Sci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Differential utilization of pyrrolizidine alkaloids by males of a danaid butterfly, Parantica sita, for the production of danaidone in the alar scent organ. Honda, K., Honda, Y., Yamamoto, S., Omura, H. J. Chem. Ecol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of melanin-concentrating hormone in chum salmon pituitaries. Kawauchi, H., Kawazoe, I., Tsubokawa, M., Kishida, M., Baker, B.I. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Stimulation of aldosterone production by beta-melanotropin. Matsuoka, H., Mulrow, P.J., Franco-Saenz, R., Li, C.H. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Most of the coding region of rat ACTH beta--LPH precursor gene lacks intervening sequences. Drouin, J., Goodman, H.M. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. A missense mutation disrupting a dibasic prohormone processing site in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) increases susceptibility to early-onset obesity through a novel molecular mechanism. Challis, B.G., Pritchard, L.E., Creemers, J.W., Delplanque, J., Keogh, J.M., Luan, J., Wareham, N.J., Yeo, G.S., Bhattacharyya, S., Froguel, P., White, A., Farooqi, I.S., O'Rahilly, S. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification and characterization of melanotropin binding proteins from M2R melanoma cells by covalent photoaffinity labeling. Gerst, J.E., Sole, J., Hazum, E., Salomon, Y. Endocrinology (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Phenothiazine therapy and plasma immunoreactive beta-MSH in schizophrenia and pruritic dermatoses. Smith, A.G., Goolamali, S.K., Thody, A.J., Shuster, S., Pye, R.J., Burton, J.L. Br. J. Dermatol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Reduction-modifiable properties of Moloney murine leukemia virus gp70 as an indicator of envelope glycoprotein heterogeneity. Trauger, R., Luftig, R.B. Intervirology (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Pituitary immunoreactive gamma-melanotropins are glycosylated oligopeptides. Shibasaki, T., Ling, N., Guillemin, R. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA for pro-opiomelanocortin in the amphibian Xenopus laevis. Martens, G.J., Civelli, O., Herbert, E. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. A specific radioimmunoassay for human beta-lipotropin. Jeffcoate, W.J., Rees, L.H., Lowry, P.J., Besser, G.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Diurnal rhythm and disappearance half-time of endogenous plasma immunoreactive beta-MSH (LPH) and ACTH in man. Tanaka, K., Nicholson, W.E., Orth, D.N. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Evidence for the differential expression of the functional alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor MC-1 on human monocytes. Bhardwaj, R., Becher, E., Mahnke, K., Hartmeyer, M., Schwarz, T., Scholzen, T., Luger, T.A. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides during fetal monkey pituitary development. II. beta-Lipotropin (beta-LPH)-related peptides. Hatfield, J.M., Allen, R.G., Stack, J., Ronnekleiv, O. Dev. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  20. In vitro release and biosynthesis of tumor ACTH in ectopic ACTH producing tumors. Hirata, Y., Yamamoto, H., Matsukura, S., Imura, H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Binding of melanotropic hormones to the melanocortin receptor MC1R on human melanocytes stimulates proliferation and melanogenesis. Suzuki, I., Cone, R.D., Im, S., Nordlund, J., Abdel-Malek, Z.A. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Evidence for alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) receptors on human malignant melanoma cells. Ghanem, G.E., Comunale, G., Libert, A., Vercammen-Grandjean, A., Lejeune, F.J. Int. J. Cancer (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. The effect of chlorpromazine on the secretion of immunoreactive beta-MSH and prolactin in man. Plummer, N.A., Thody, A.J., Burton, J.L., Goolamali, S.K., Shuster, S., Cole, E.N., Boyns, A.R. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1975) [Pubmed]
  24. Synthesis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids indicine, intermedine, lycopsamine, and analogues and their N-oxides. Potential antitumor agents. Zalkow, L.H., Glinski, J.A., Gelbaum, L.T., Fleischmann, T.J., McGowan, L.S., Gordon, M.M. J. Med. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Structure-activity relationships of novel cyclic alpha-MSH/beta-MSH hybrid analogues that lead to potent and selective ligands for the human MC3R and human MC5R. Balse-Srinivasan, P., Grieco, P., Cai, M., Trivedi, D., Hruby, V.J. J. Med. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Molecular cloning of a novel human melanocortin receptor. Chhajlani, V., Muceniece, R., Wikberg, J.E. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. A POMC variant implicates beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the control of human energy balance. Lee, Y.S., Challis, B.G., Thompson, D.A., Yeo, G.S., Keogh, J.M., Madonna, M.E., Wraight, V., Sims, M., Vatin, V., Meyre, D., Shield, J., Burren, C., Ibrahim, Z., Cheetham, T., Swift, P., Blackwood, A., Hung, C.C., Wareham, N.J., Froguel, P., Millhauser, G.L., O'Rahilly, S., Farooqi, I.S. Cell metabolism. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Melanocortins in human melanocytes. Wood, J.M., Gibbons, N.C., Schallreuter, K.U. Cell. Mol. Biol. (Noisy-le-grand) (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron-microscopic study of pituitary adenomas associated with Cushing's disease. A report of 13 cases. Charpin, C., Hassoun, J., Oliver, C., Jaquet, P., Argemi, B., Grisoli, F., Toga, M. Am. J. Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  30. Dynamics and characterization of plasma immunoreactive beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone in hemodialysis patients: its relationship to ACTH. Bertagna, X., Donnadieu, M., Idatte, J.M., Girard, F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1977) [Pubmed]
  31. Characterization of lipotropin-, corticotropin-, and beta-endorphin-immunoreactive materials secreted in vitro by a human pituitary adenoma responsible for a case of Nelson's syndrome. Bertagna, X., Luton, J.P., Binoux, M., Bricaire, H., Girard, F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1979) [Pubmed]
  32. Murine retrovirus Pr65gag forms a 130K dimer in the absence of disulfide reducing agents. Yoshinaka, Y., Katoh, I., Luftig, R.B. Virology (1984) [Pubmed]
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