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MeSH Review

Gulf War

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Disease relevance of Gulf War


Psychiatry related information on Gulf War


High impact information on Gulf War


Chemical compound and disease context of Gulf War

  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), rare in the first Gulf War, is common in American troops serving in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Awareness of the clinical features and treatment options of CL would benefit clinicians who may encounter soldiers, as well as civilians, returning from the Middle East with skin lesions [12].
  • This theory appears to be the first to provide a mechanistic explanation for the multiple overlaps of these disease states and it also explains the origin of many of their common symptoms and similarity to both Gulf War syndrome and chronic sequelae of carbon monoxide toxicity [13].

Biological context of Gulf War

  • The serum PON1 concentration was also lower in the Gulf War Veterans (75.7 (18.1-351.3) vs 88.2 (34.5-527.4) microg/ml, P < 0.00025), which was again independent of PON1 genotype [14].
  • Biological monitoring and surveillance results of Gulf War I veterans exposed to depleted uranium [15].
  • American soldiers involved in "friendly fire" accidents during the 1991 Gulf War were injured with depleted-uranium-containing fragments or possibly exposed to depleted uranium via other routes such as inhalation, ingestion, and/or wound contamination [16].
  • Measles during the Gulf War: a public health threat in Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza [17].

Anatomical context of Gulf War

  • CONCLUSIONS: The reduction in functioning neuronal mass in the left basal ganglia of these veterans with Gulf War syndrome seems to have altered central dopamine production in a lateralized pattern [18].

Associations of Gulf War with chemical compounds

  • Impact of the Gulf War on the anxiety, cortisol, and growth hormone levels of Israeli civilians [19].
  • Contextual learning and changes in reactivity consequent to mild interoceptive stressors such as PB may play a role in the development of nonspecific symptoms typical of unexplained illnesses, such as Gulf War Illness [20].
  • Re: "Factor analysis of self-reported symptoms: does it identify a Gulf War syndrome?" [21].
  • Patterns identified from examinations performed on patients with known exposure to petroleum distillates, pesticides and other materials linked with neurotoxicity were identified in some veterans of the Desert Shield/Desert Storm operation [22].
  • METHODS: Psychophysiological stress testing was performed on 51 Gulf War veterans with chronic fatigue (using the 1994 case definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and 42 healthy veterans [23].

Gene context of Gulf War

  • Our finding parallels others' observation of a link between PON1 heterozygosity and neurological symptoms in Gulf War syndrome [24].
  • These data show that multisymptom illness in Gulf War veterans is characterized by ongoing Th1-type immune activation and a biased generation of memory cells secreting the suppressor cytokine, IL-10 [25].
  • These results were obtained in 25 ill veterans and 20 well control subjects, of which 10 were deployed and 10 were nondeployed battalion members who remained in the United States during the Gulf War. The blood samples were also assayed for serum butyrylcholinesterase in our laboratory, and more recently in Dr. C [26].
  • To investigate reports on war-related morbidity, 527 active-duty Gulf War veterans and 970 nondeployed veterans from 14 Seabee commands were studied in 1994 with a questionnaire, sera collection, handgrip strength, and pulmonary function testing [27].
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to look objectively at cervical cytological differences between women Gulf War female veterans (GWFV) and Gulf War-era active duty females not deployed to the Gulf (NDF) during Operation Desert Shield/Desert Storm using Pap smear results [28].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gulf War

  • Symptom data and sera from a 1994-1995 cross-sectional survey of Navy Seabees were used to select symptomatic and asymptomatic Gulf War veterans and nondeployed veterans to evaluate this hypothesis [29].
  • Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was used for polyribonucleotide assays with sera from deployed Persian Gulf War veterans with the Gulf War Syndrome and a cohort of nonmilitary controls [30].
  • Heavy-metal nephrotoxicity has not been noted in either animal studies or Gulf War veteran cohort studies despite markedly elevated urinary uranium excretion [31].
  • The main outcome measures were physical symptoms and ailments, functional capacity on the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention multisymptom criteria for Gulf War illness, and post-traumatic stress reactions [32].
  • We used data collected from a case-control study of HFM to estimate risk in relation to parental military service and, in particular, Gulf War service [33].


  1. EBV gene expression not altered in rheumatoid synovia despite the presence of EBV antigen-specific T cell clones. Edinger, J.W., Bonneville, M., Scotet, E., Houssaint, E., Schumacher, H.R., Posnett, D.N. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Association of low PON1 type Q (type A) arylesterase activity with neurologic symptom complexes in Gulf War veterans. Haley, R.W., Billecke, S., La Du, B.N. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Controlled exposures to volatile organic compounds in sensitive groups. Fiedler, N., Kipen, H.M. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Medical effects of internal contamination with uranium. Duraković, A. Croat. Med. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Do cytosine guanine dinucleotide (CpG) fragments induce vasoactive neuropeptide mediated fatigue-related autoimmune disorders? Staines, D.R. Med. Hypotheses (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Neuropsychological findings in a sample of Operation Desert Storm veterans. Axelrod, B.N., Milner, I.B. The Journal of neuropsychiatry and clinical neurosciences. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Benefits and harms of doxycycline treatment for Gulf War veterans' illnesses: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Donta, S.T., Engel, C.C., Collins, J.F., Baseman, J.B., Dever, L.L., Taylor, T., Boardman, K.D., Kazis, L.E., Martin, S.E., Horney, R.A., Wiseman, A.L., Kernodle, D.S., Smith, R.P., Baltch, A.L., Handanos, C., Catto, B., Montalvo, L., Everson, M., Blackburn, W., Thakore, M., Brown, S.T., Lutwick, L., Norwood, D., Bernstein, J., Bacheller, C., Ribner, B., Church, L.W., Wilson, K.H., Guduru, P., Cooper, R., Lentino, J., Hamill, R.J., Gorin, A.B., Gordan, V., Wagner, D., Robinson, C., DeJace, P., Greenfield, R., Beck, L., Bittner, M., Schumacher, H.R., Silverblatt, F., Schmitt, J., Wong, E., Ryan, M.A., Figueroa, J., Nice, C., Feussner, J.R. Ann. Intern. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Self-reported exposure to neurotoxic chemical combinations in the Gulf War. A cross-sectional epidemiologic study. Haley, R.W., Kurt, T.L. JAMA (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Institute of Medicine calls for coordinated studies of Gulf War veterans' health complaints. Gunby, P. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Pyridostigmine used as a nerve agent pretreatment under wartime conditions. Keeler, J.R., Hurst, C.G., Dunn, M.A. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Rats made congenic for Oia3 on chromosome 10 become susceptible to squalene-induced arthritis. Holm, B.C., Xu, H.W., Jacobsson, L., Larsson, A., Luthman, H., Lorentzen, J.C. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in soldiers from Fort Campbell, Kentucky returning from Operation Iraqi Freedom highlights diagnostic and therapeutic options. Willard, R.J., Jeffcoat, A.M., Benson, P.M., Walsh, D.S. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Common etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and multiple chemical sensitivity via elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite. Pall, M.L. Med. Hypotheses (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Low paraoxonase in Persian Gulf War Veterans self-reporting Gulf War Syndrome. Mackness, B., Durrington, P.N., Mackness, M.I. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Biological monitoring and surveillance results of Gulf War I veterans exposed to depleted uranium. McDiarmid, M.A., Engelhardt, S.M., Oliver, M., Gucer, P., Wilson, P.D., Kane, R., Kabat, M., Kaup, B., Anderson, L., Hoover, D., Brown, L., Albertini, R.J., Gudi, R., Jacobson-Kram, D., Thorne, C.D., Squibb, K.S. International archives of occupational and environmental health. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Detection of depleted uranium in urine of veterans from the 1991 Gulf War. Gwiazda, R.H., Squibb, K., McDiarmid, M., Smith, D. Health physics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Measles during the Gulf War: a public health threat in Israel, the West Bank, and Gaza. Tulchinsky, T.H., Belmaker, I., Raabi, S., Acker, C., Arbeli, Y., Lobel, R., Abed, Y., Toubassi, N., Goldberg, E., Slater, P.E. Public health reviews. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of basal ganglia injury on central dopamine activity in Gulf War syndrome: correlation of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and plasma homovanillic acid levels. Haley, R.W., Fleckenstein, J.L., Marshall, W.W., McDonald, G.G., Kramer, G.L., Petty, F. Arch. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Impact of the Gulf War on the anxiety, cortisol, and growth hormone levels of Israeli civilians. Weizman, R., Laor, N., Barber, Y., Selman, A., Schujovizky, A., Wolmer, L., Laron, Z., Gil-Ad, I. The American journal of psychiatry. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Mild interoceptive stressors affect learning and reactivity to contextual cues: toward understanding the development of unexplained illnesses. Servatius, R.J., Beck, K.D. Neuropsychopharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Re: "Factor analysis of self-reported symptoms: does it identify a Gulf War syndrome?". Haley, R.W. Am. J. Epidemiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Single photon emission computed tomography of the brain in patients with chemical sensitivities. Simon, T.R., Hickey, D.C., Fincher, C.E., Johnson, A.R., Ross, G.H., Rea, W.J. Toxicology and industrial health. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Cardiovascular stress responses and their relation to symptoms in Gulf War veterans with fatiguing illness. Peckerman, A., LaManca, J.J., Smith, S.L., Taylor, A., Tiersky, L., Pollet, C., Korn, L.R., Hurwitz, B.E., Ottenweller, J.E., Natelson, B.H. Psychosomatic medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Case-control study of genotypes in multiple chemical sensitivity: CYP2D6, NAT1, NAT2, PON1, PON2 and MTHFR. McKeown-Eyssen, G., Baines, C., Cole, D.E., Riley, N., Tyndale, R.F., Marshall, L., Jazmaji, V. International journal of epidemiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Cellular immune activation in Gulf War veterans. Skowera, A., Hotopf, M., Sawicka, E., Varela-Calvino, R., Unwin, C., Nikolaou, V., Hull, L., Ismail, K., David, A.S., Wessely, S.C., Peakman, M. J. Clin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. Serum paraoxonase (PON1) isozymes: the quantitative analysis of isozymes affecting individual sensitivity to environmental chemicals. La Du, B.N., Billecke, S., Hsu, C., Haley, R.W., Broomfield, C.A. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Increased postwar symptoms and psychological morbidity among U.S. Navy Gulf War veterans. Gray, G.C., Kaiser, K.S., Hawksworth, A.W., Hall, F.W., Barrett-Connor, E. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. A comparison of cervical pathology between United States Air Force women who did and did not serve in the Persian Gulf War. Frommelt, R.A., Peterson, M.R., O'Leary, T.J. Annals of epidemiology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. No serologic evidence of an association found between Gulf War service and Mycoplasma fermentans infection. Gray, G.C., Kaiser, K.S., Hawksworth, A.W., Watson, H.L. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. RNAs in the sera of Persian Gulf War veterans have segments homologous to chromosome 22q11.2. Urnovitz, H.B., Tuite, J.J., Higashida, J.M., Murphy, W.H. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Chemical and radiological toxicity of depleted uranium. Sztajnkrycer, M.D., Otten, E.J. Military medicine. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Women in the Persian Gulf: lack of gender differences in long-term health effects of service in United Kingdom Armed Forces in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Unwin, C., Hotopf, M., Hull, L., Ismail, K., David, A., Wessely, S. Military medicine. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Gulf War veterans and hemifacial microsomia. Werler, M.M., Sheehan, J.E., Mitchell, A.A. Birth defects research. Part A, Clinical and molecular teratology. (2005) [Pubmed]
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