The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Toxemia

  • The higher two-hour plasma glucose levels were associated with a significant increase in the incidence of macrosomia (9.9, 15.5, and 27.5 percent in Groups A, B, and C, respectively), congenital abnormalities (0.7, 3.5, and 5.0 percent), and toxemia, cesarean section, or both (19.9, 25.9, and 40.0 percent) [1].
  • Elaboration of cytokines, including IL-6 and IFN-gamma, contribute to a cytokine storm formerly known as "toxemia." A more precise understanding of disease pathogenesis should provide targets for therapeutic intervention, to be used alone or in combination with inhibitors of variola virus replication [2].
  • Thus, 16beta-hydroxy - DHEA and 16-oxo-androstenediol probably do not play an important role in either low-renin essential hypertension or toxemia of pregnancy [3].
  • Intrauterine death was found to occur in association with maternal homeostatic alterations resulting from phenylketonuria and diabetes, and with maternal toxicity from toxemia of pregnancy, leukemia, burns, alcohol, aminopterin, isotretinoin, and possibly trimethadione [4].
  • The consumption of total lipids and cholesterol was significantly greater in all three trials by both the toxemia and edema groups [5].

High impact information on Toxemia

  • In order to intervene in TLR2-driven toxemia, we raised mAb's against the extracellular domain of TLR2 [6].
  • Experimental toxemia of pregnancy in the monkey, with a preliminary report on renin and aldosterone [7].
  • Diet-related toxemia in pregnancy. I. Fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol [5].
  • Serum concentrations of total and free thyroxine (T4 and FT4) and total and free triiodothyronine (T3 and FT3) were measured in normal pregnant women, in patients with toxemia of pregnancy, and in patients with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) [8].
  • This CD69 assay might be used for initial detection of superantigens from S. aureus strains isolated in the context of staphylococcal toxemia or related chronic human diseases such as atopic dermatitis or Kawasaki syndrome [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Toxemia

  • Styrene exposure in a petrochemical industrial area was associated mainly with late toxemia and nephropathy [10].
  • The role of cadmium in the cause of preeclamptic toxemia remains unclear [11].
  • Hereditary protein C was diagnosed but full heparinization followed by low-dose heparin failed to prevent preeclamptic toxemia [12].
  • These data indicate that placental prostacyclin production is decreased in toxemia; therefore, this vasoactive prostaglandin may be involved in the causation and the associated hypertension and coagulation abnormalities of this disorder [13].
  • Abnormality in metabolism of 15N-labeled nitrate in toxemia [14].

Biological context of Toxemia


Anatomical context of Toxemia

  • Prostacyclin production rates in the amnion and chorion were not affected (p greater than 0.10) by toxemia [13].
  • Since toxemia of pregnancy may affect important metabolic, transport and hemodynamic functions of placentas, we have asked the question whether binding properties of human placental ANP receptors are changed in patients with severe toxemia of pregnancy when compared to normal patients [17].
  • For the SGA infants "preterm birth", "threatened premature labour", "green amniotic fluid" and "toxemia of pregnancy" were the most important risks relating to high creatine levels of red cells at birth [18].

Gene context of Toxemia

  • The frequencies of 8 HLA-A antigens, 21 HLA-B antigens, 10 HLA-DR antigens and 4 HLA-MT antigens were determined in 21 patients with toxemia and their husbands and some of their children, 45 fertile couples without a history of abnormal pregnancy and 206 healthy adult controls (DR were in 106 controls) [19].
  • In toxemia, SP1, hCG and PRL were elevated, while HPL and ET were very low [20].
  • Elevated serum PP5 concentrations were noted in patients whose pregnancies were complicated by toxemia of pregnancy with appropriate-for-date baby or by twin pregnancy [21].
  • In severe toxemia of pregnancy, decreases in extrinsic coagulation factors, platelet, antithrombin III, plasminogen, alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor, and increases in soluble fibrin-monomer complex, fibrin degradation products, beta-thromboglobulin were observed [22].
  • In toxemia of pregnancy, the relative amounts of apoprotein CII, an activator of lipoprotein lipase, and CIII, an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase, in serum were similar to those in normal pregnancy, but those in VLDL decreased significantly [23].


  1. Relation of glucose tolerance to complications of pregnancy in nondiabetic women. Tallarigo, L., Giampietro, O., Penno, G., Miccoli, R., Gregori, G., Navalesi, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  2. Exploring the potential of variola virus infection of cynomolgus macaques as a model for human smallpox. Jahrling, P.B., Hensley, L.E., Martinez, M.J., Leduc, J.W., Rubins, K.H., Relman, D.A., Huggins, J.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. The C19-mineralocorticoids in hypertension. Sennett, J.A., Yarbro, L.R., Slaton, P.E., Hollifield, J.W., Liddle, G.W. Circ. Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Maternal toxicity of drugs and metabolic disorders--a possible etiologic factor in the intrauterine death and congenital malformation: a critique on human data. Khera, K.S. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Diet-related toxemia in pregnancy. I. Fat, fatty acids, and cholesterol. Chung, R., Davis, H., Ma, Y., Naivikul, O., Williams, C., Wilson, K. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Antagonistic antibody prevents toll-like receptor 2-driven lethal shock-like syndromes. Meng, G., Rutz, M., Schiemann, M., Metzger, J., Grabiec, A., Schwandner, R., Luppa, P.B., Ebel, F., Busch, D.H., Bauer, S., Wagner, H., Kirschning, C.J. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Experimental toxemia of pregnancy in the monkey, with a preliminary report on renin and aldosterone. Abitbol, M.M., Ober, M.B., Gallo, G.R., Driscoll, S.G., Pirani, C.L. Am. J. Pathol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine in normal and complicated pregnancy. Osathanondh, R., Tulchinsky, D., Chopra, I.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Detection of staphylococcal superantigenic toxins by a CD69-specific cytofluorimetric assay measuring T-cell activation. Lina, G., Cozon, G., Ferrandiz, J., Greenland, T., Vandenesch, F., Etienne, J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Environmental pollutants in relation to complications of pregnancy. Tabacova, S., Balabaeva, L. Environ. Health Perspect. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Zinc, cadmium, and hypertension in parturient women. Lazebnik, N., Kuhnert, B.R., Kuhnert, P.M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Hereditary protein C deficiency during pregnancy. Brenner, B., Shapira, A., Bahari, C., Haimovich, L., Seligsohn, U. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Placental prostacyclin production in normal and toxemic pregnancies. Walsh, S.W., Behr, M.J., Allen, N.H. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Abnormality in metabolism of 15N-labeled nitrate in toxemia. McLaren, D.S., Mroueh, A., Read, W.W. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Serum prolactin in normal and pathologic pregnancy. Sadovsky, E., Weinstein, D., Ben-David, M., Polishuk, W.Z. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. Fluorescein angiography in hypertensive pregnancies. Schreyer, P., Tzadok, J., Sherman, D.J., Herman, A., Bar-Itzhak, R., Caspi, E. International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Changes in placental atrial natriuretic peptide receptors associated with severe toxemia of pregnancy. Hatjis, C.G., Grogan, D.M. Placenta (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Red cell creatine in term and preterm, adequate and small for gestational age newborns after normal pregnancy or risk conditions. II. Mathematical analysis of 12 risk conditions in relation to the creatine level at birth. Syllm-Rapoport, I., Läuter, J., Vogtmann, C., Daniel, A. Biomed. Biochim. Acta (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. HLA antigens-antibodies system and its association with severe toxemia of pregnancy. Fujisawa, S. Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Amniotic fluid hormone profiles during normal and abnormal pregnancy. Sarandakou, A., Kassanos, D., Phocas, I., Kontoravdis, A., Chryssicopoulos, A., Zourlas, P.A. Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Circulating levels of placental protein 5 in normal and abnormal pregnancies. Takayama, M., Soma, H., Saito, T., Isaka, K., Kashiwagi, H., Ogawa, T., Suzuki, Y., Sayama, S. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet and kinin-forming systems during toxemia of pregnancy. Maki, M. Biological research in pregnancy and perinatology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. Triglycerides and apoproteins in toxemia of pregnancy. Yamaguchi, K. Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi (1988) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities