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MeSH Review

Lymphatic System

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Disease relevance of Lymphatic System

  • Immunohistochemistry has been used to analyse the expression pattern of CD44 standard (CD44s) and variant (CD44v) isoforms in normal and dysplastic squamous epithelia, as well as in primary and metastatic squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), which spread predominantly by way of the lymphatic system [1].
  • The final analysis, for 1989-96, however, shows marked temporal changes in the relative position of four cancers or grouped malignancies: respiratory cancer up by 236%, hepatocellular carcinoma down to 32%, oesophageal holding steady, and lymphatic system cancers up by 420%, almost certainly because of association with HIV/AIDS infection [2].
  • In addition to calcium suppression of parathyroid hormone, preventing bone resorption, collagen, acting on the intestinal lymphatic system, may protect collagen from degradation through the inhibition of cytokine-induced release of metalloproteinases, including collagenase [3].
  • Nevertheless, excesses were observed for mortality from stomach cancer (SMR, 156; 95% CI, 63 to 322), lung cancer (SMR, 140; 95% CI, 56 to 289), and lymphatic system cancers (SMR, 175; 95% CI, 48 to 448) [4].
  • We speculate that thyroid hormone may play a role in the regulation of adrenergic receptors in the lymphatic system and lungs, thus modulating both the lymphatic flow rate and lung liquid clearance, and facilitating the resolution of chylothorax [5].

High impact information on Lymphatic System


Biological context of Lymphatic System


Anatomical context of Lymphatic System

  • In addition, the majority of patients with tumors that coexpressed ICAM-1 and Neu had no lymph node involvement, unlike most Neu-positive but ICAM-1-negative tumors, which metastasized to the lymphatic system [15].
  • 2-Amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amine present in pyrolysate products of meat and fish and has been shown to induce tumors in the colon, mammary gland, and possibly lymphatic system [16].
  • alpha(9)beta(1) integrin is a member of the beta(1) integrin family, plays an important role in extravasation of neutrophils at sites of acute inflammation, and is required for the normal development of the lymphatic system [17].
  • Given the key role played by IL-12 in the differentiation of naïve T cells into the Th1 subset, the observation that IL-12 can also regulate L-selectin expression has implications for the migration of Th1 effector cells both through the lymphatic system and to sites of inflammation [18].
  • This study confirms our previous proposition that, in the extrasplenic microcirculation, ANP causes greater increases in post- than precapillary resistance, thus increasing intrasplenic capillary hydrostatic pressure (P(c)) and fluid efflux into the lymphatic system [19].

Associations of Lymphatic System with chemical compounds

  • The Mr of the polysaccharide showed a great polydispersity and variation between individuals and in different regions of the lymphatic system [20].
  • From the effect of d.p. on the increase of transudation, presumably lymph, it is concluded that luminal hydrostatic pressure may play a role in fluid transport via the lymphatic system [21].
  • These studies suggest that unesterified eicosapentaenoic acid is absorbed efficiently into the lymphatic system, and has lymph lipoprotein and lipid distribution comparable to those of the more typical mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids [22].
  • Furthermore, a variant of this experiment enabled us to establish that the increased numbers of M cells led to an improved capability of the FAE to transport latex fluorescent microspheres (0.5 microm), highly specific to rabbit M cells, from the gut lumen to the intestinal lymphatic system [23].
  • Therefore, it is important to characterize the disposition of the anti-HIV agents, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) and 3'-azido-2', 3'-dideoxyuridine (AZdU), in the lymphatic system [24].

Gene context of Lymphatic System

  • Our data suggest that CXCR4 might be particularly important in facilitating metastasis through the lymphatic system [25].
  • Targeted inactivation of Vezf1 in mice reveals that it acts in a closely regulated, dose-dependent fashion on the development of the blood vascular and lymphatic system [26].
  • Molecular analysis of the FOXC2 pathway may provide clues to developmental pathways shared by the lymphatic system and the other developmental abnormalities associated with this complex syndrome [27].
  • Our findings demonstrate an overriding constitutive NF-kappaB activity in the lymphatic system [28].
  • The S. typhimurium htrB mutant was inoculated into mice and found to be severely limited in its ability to colonize organs of the lymphatic system and to cause systemic disease in mice [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lymphatic System

  • To explain the influence of the lymphatic system in allograft survival, short-term therapy was applied with the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (10 mg/kg i.m.) for only 5 postoperative days [30].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The primary insult to the axillary lymphatic system by surgery and radiotherapy presumably is the root cause of PME; however, there is strong evidence to suggest that hemodynamic factors are contributory to the chronic swelling [31].
  • 3. A reduced conversion of ASA to SA by esterases in lymph, and lymphatic absorption of ASA following the oral administration might be factors responsible for the accumulation of the compound in the lymphatic system [32].


  1. Expression of CD44 splice variants in squamous epithelia and squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Herold-Mende, C., Seiter, S., Born, A.I., Patzelt, E., Schupp, M., Zöller, J., Bosch, F.X., Zöller, M. J. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Changes in the geographical and temporal patterns of cancer incidence among black gold miners working in South Africa, 1964-1996. McGlashan, N.D., Harington, J.S., Chelkowska, E. Br. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. The effect of active absorbable algal calcium (AAA Ca) with collagen and other matrix components on back and joint pain and skin impedance. Fujita, T., Ohue, M., Fujii, Y., Miyauchi, A., Takagi, Y. J. Bone Miner. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. An occupational cohort mortality study of women in the German rubber industry: 1976 to 1991. Mundt, K.A., Weiland, S.K., Bucher, A.M., Straif, K., Werner, B., Chambless, L., Keil, U. J. Occup. Environ. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Congenital hypothyroidism and nonimmune hydrops fetalis: associated? Kessel, I., Makhoul, I.R., Sujov, P. Pediatrics (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Prox1 function is required for the development of the murine lymphatic system. Wigle, J.T., Oliver, G. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Hyperplasia of lymphatic vessels in VEGF-C transgenic mice. Jeltsch, M., Kaipainen, A., Joukov, V., Meng, X., Lakso, M., Rauvala, H., Swartz, M., Fukumura, D., Jain, R.K., Alitalo, K. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Depression of DNA synthesis in mouse spleen after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Cihák, A., Veselý, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1979) [Pubmed]
  9. An essential role for Prox1 in the induction of the lymphatic endothelial cell phenotype. Wigle, J.T., Harvey, N., Detmar, M., Lagutina, I., Grosveld, G., Gunn, M.D., Jackson, D.G., Oliver, G. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. A novel vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF-C, is a ligand for the Flt4 (VEGFR-3) and KDR (VEGFR-2) receptor tyrosine kinases. Joukov, V., Pajusola, K., Kaipainen, A., Chilov, D., Lahtinen, I., Kukk, E., Saksela, O., Kalkkinen, N., Alitalo, K. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Multiple lysosomal trafficking phenotypes in metastatic mouse mammary tumor cell lines. Tao, K., Li, J., Warner, J., MacLeod, K., Miller, F.R., Sahagian, G.G. Int. J. Oncol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. A quantitative appraisal of interference by icodextrin metabolites in point-of-care glucose analyses. Apperloo, J.J., Vader, H.L. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Metabolic fate of ulinastatin (2); Pharmacokinetics in rabbits following intra-articular administration. Ohzawa, N., Takahashi, Y., Ogihara, T., Nakai, Y., Ishiguro, J. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Lymphadenitis and lymphoproliferative lesions associated with the human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). Borisch, B., Ellinger, K., Neipel, F., Fleckenstein, B., Kirchner, T., Ott, M.M., Müller-Hermelink, H.K. Virchows Arch., B, Cell Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Neu differentiation factor (heregulin) induces expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1: implications for mammary tumors. Bacus, S.S., Gudkov, A.V., Zelnick, C.R., Chin, D., Stern, R., Stancovski, I., Peles, E., Ben-Baruch, N., Farbstein, H., Lupu, R. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Inhibition of 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5]pyridine-induced lymphoma formation by oltipraz. Rao, C.V., Rivenson, A., Zang, E., Steele, V., Kelloff, G., Reddy, B.S. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Binding of Paxillin to the alpha 9 Integrin Cytoplasmic Domain Inhibits Cell Spreading. Liu, S., Slepak, M., Ginsberg, M.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Expression of L-selectin on Th1 cells is regulated by IL-12. van Wely, C.A., Beverley, P.C., Brett, S.J., Britten, C.J., Tite, J.P. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on the extrasplenic microvasculature and lymphatics in the rat in vivo. Brookes, Z.L., Kaufman, S. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Concentration and relative molecular mass of hyaluronate in lymph and blood. Tengblad, A., Laurent, U.B., Lilja, K., Cahill, R.N., Engström-Laurent, A., Fraser, J.R., Hansson, H.E., Laurent, T.C. Biochem. J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. Intraluminal distension pressure on intestinal lymph flow, serosal transudation and fluid transport in the rat. Lee, J.S. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Intestinal absorption and lipoprotein transport of (omega-3) eicosapentaenoic acid. Chen, I.S., Subramaniam, S., Cassidy, M.M., Sheppard, A.J., Vahouny, G.V. J. Nutr. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. Rapid appearance of M cells after microbial challenge is restricted at the periphery of the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patch. Borghesi, C., Taussig, M.J., Nicoletti, C. Lab. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Lymphatic distribution of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and 3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxyuridine in mice. Manouilov, K.K., White, C.A., Boudinot, F.D., Fedorov, I.I., Chu, C.K. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression pattern of CXC chemokine receptor-4 is correlated with lymph node metastasis in human invasive ductal carcinoma. Kato, M., Kitayama, J., Kazama, S., Nagawa, H. Breast Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Dosage-dependent requirement for mouse Vezf1 in vascular system development. Kuhnert, F., Campagnolo, L., Xiong, J.W., Lemons, D., Fitch, M.J., Zou, Z., Kiosses, W.B., Gardner, H., Stuhlmann, H. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Research perspectives in inherited lymphatic disease. Ferrell, R.E. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Visualization of lymphatic vessels through NF-kappaB activity. Saban, M.R., Mémet, S., Jackson, D.G., Ash, J., Roig, A.A., Israël, A., Saban, R. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Study of the role of the htrB gene in Salmonella typhimurium virulence. Jones, B.D., Nichols, W.A., Gibson, B.W., Sunshine, M.G., Apicella, M.A. Infect. Immun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Microsurgical reconstruction of the lymphatic and nerve system in small bowel transplantation: the rat model, first results. Szymula von Richter, T.P., Baumeister, R.G., Hammer, C. Transpl. Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. The pathophysiology of lymphedema. Mortimer, P.S. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Lymphatic transport of salicylates in dogs. Sudo, L.S., Almeida, M.G., Yasaka, W., Garcia-Leme, J. Gen. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
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