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Gene Review

VEGFC  -  vascular endothelial growth factor C

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Flt4 ligand, Flt4-L, LMPH1D, VEGF-C, VRP, ...
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Disease relevance of VEGFC


High impact information on VEGFC


Chemical compound and disease context of VEGFC


Biological context of VEGFC


Anatomical context of VEGFC


Associations of VEGFC with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of VEGFC

  • VRP fails to bind appreciably to the extracellular domain of Flt1 or Flk1 [16].
  • Recombinant 'mature' VEGF-C made in yeast bound VEGFR-3 (K[D] = 135 pM) and VEGFR-2 (K[D] = 410 pM) and activated these receptors [15].
  • A functional VEGF-C autocrine growth loop was demonstrated in mesothelioma cells by targeting VEGF-C expression and binding to VEGFR-3 [22].

Regulatory relationships of VEGFC


Other interactions of VEGFC


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VEGFC


  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C signaling through FLT-4 (VEGFR-3) mediates leukemic cell proliferation, survival, and resistance to chemotherapy. Dias, S., Choy, M., Alitalo, K., Rafii, S. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Signal transduction in human hematopoietic cells by vascular endothelial growth factor related protein, a novel ligand for the FLT4 receptor. Wang, J.F., Ganju, R.K., Liu, Z.Y., Avraham, H., Avraham, S., Groopman, J.E. Blood (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Cyclooxygenase-2 induces EP1- and HER-2/Neu-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor-C up-regulation: a novel mechanism of lymphangiogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma. Su, J.L., Shih, J.Y., Yen, M.L., Jeng, Y.M., Chang, C.C., Hsieh, C.Y., Wei, L.H., Yang, P.C., Kuo, M.L. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor-B and vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression in renal cell carcinomas: regulation by the von Hippel-Lindau gene and hypoxia. Gunningham, S.P., Currie, M.J., Han, C., Turner, K., Scott, P.A., Robinson, B.A., Harris, A.L., Fox, S.B. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. RalA regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) synthesis in prostate cancer cells during androgen ablation. Rinaldo, F., Li, J., Wang, E., Muders, M., Datta, K. Oncogene (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Increased vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression is insufficient to induce lymphatic metastasis in human soft-tissue sarcomas. Lahat, G., Lazar, A., Wang, X., Wang, W.L., Zhu, Q.S., Hunt, K.K., Pollock, R.E., Lev, D. Clin. Cancer Res. (2009) [Pubmed]
  7. Induction of tumor lymphangiogenesis by VEGF-C promotes breast cancer metastasis. Skobe, M., Hawighorst, T., Jackson, D.G., Prevo, R., Janes, L., Velasco, P., Riccardi, L., Alitalo, K., Claffey, K., Detmar, M. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Plasmin activates the lymphangiogenic growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D. McColl, B.K., Baldwin, M.E., Roufail, S., Freeman, C., Moritz, R.L., Simpson, R.J., Alitalo, K., Stacker, S.A., Achen, M.G. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. VEGF-C gene therapy augments postnatal lymphangiogenesis and ameliorates secondary lymphedema. Yoon, Y.S., Murayama, T., Gravereaux, E., Tkebuchava, T., Silver, M., Curry, C., Wecker, A., Kirchmair, R., Hu, C.S., Kearney, M., Ashare, A., Jackson, D.G., Kubo, H., Isner, J.M., Losordo, D.W. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. The secretory proprotein convertases furin, PC5, and PC7 activate VEGF-C to induce tumorigenesis. Siegfried, G., Basak, A., Cromlish, J.A., Benjannet, S., Marcinkiewicz, J., Chrétien, M., Seidah, N.G., Khatib, A.M. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Glucocorticoids suppress tumor lymphangiogenesis of prostate cancer cells. Yano, A., Fujii, Y., Iwai, A., Kawakami, S., Kageyama, Y., Kihara, K. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Doxycycline Reduces Plasma VEGF-C/sVEGFR-3 and Improves Pathology in Lymphatic Filariasis. Debrah, A.Y., Mand, S., Specht, S., Marfo-Debrekyei, Y., Batsa, L., Pfarr, K., Larbi, J., Lawson, B., Taylor, M., Adjei, O., Hoerauf, A. PLoS Pathog. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Nitric oxide in breast cancer: induction of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and correlation with metastasis and poor prognosis. Nakamura, Y., Yasuoka, H., Tsujimoto, M., Yoshidome, K., Nakahara, M., Nakao, K., Nakamura, M., Kakudo, K. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor measured in platelet poor plasma allows optimal separation between cancer patients and volunteers: a key to study an angiogenic marker in vivo? Wynendaele, W., Derua, R., Hoylaerts, M.F., Pawinski, A., Waelkens, E., de Bruijn, E.A., Paridaens, R., Merlevede, W., van Oosterom, A.T. Ann. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Proteolytic processing regulates receptor specificity and activity of VEGF-C. Joukov, V., Sorsa, T., Kumar, V., Jeltsch, M., Claesson-Welsh, L., Cao, Y., Saksela, O., Kalkkinen, N., Alitalo, K. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor-related protein: a ligand and specific activator of the tyrosine kinase receptor Flt4. Lee, J., Gray, A., Yuan, J., Luoh, S.M., Avraham, H., Wood, W.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Neuropilin-2 interacts with VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 and promotes human endothelial cell survival and migration. Favier, B., Alam, A., Barron, P., Bonnin, J., Laboudie, P., Fons, P., Mandron, M., Herault, J.P., Neufeld, G., Savi, P., Herbert, J.M., Bono, F. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. A novel vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF-C, is a ligand for the Flt4 (VEGFR-3) and KDR (VEGFR-2) receptor tyrosine kinases. Joukov, V., Pajusola, K., Kaipainen, A., Chilov, D., Lahtinen, I., Kukk, E., Saksela, O., Kalkkinen, N., Alitalo, K. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Proinflammatory cytokines regulate expression of the lymphatic endothelial mitogen vascular endothelial growth factor-C. Ristimäki, A., Narko, K., Enholm, B., Joukov, V., Alitalo, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. The short form of the alternatively spliced flt-4 but not its ligand vascular endothelial growth factor C is related to lymph node metastasis in human breast cancers. Gunningham, S.P., Currie, M.J., Han, C., Robinson, B.A., Scott, P.A., Harris, A.L., Fox, S.B. Clin. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor C in breast cancer cells by heregulin-beta 1. A critical role of p38/nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway. Tsai, P.W., Shiah, S.G., Lin, M.T., Wu, C.W., Kuo, M.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Malignant mesothelioma growth inhibition by agents that target the VEGF and VEGF-C autocrine loops. Masood, R., Kundra, A., Zhu, S., Xia, G., Scalia, P., Smith, D.L., Gill, P.S. Int. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and its receptors KDR and flt-4 are expressed in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Skobe, M., Brown, L.F., Tognazzi, K., Ganju, R.K., Dezube, B.J., Alitalo, K., Detmar, M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. VEGF-C promotes survival in podocytes. Foster, R.R., Satchell, S.C., Seckley, J., Emmett, M.S., Joory, K., Xing, C.Y., Saleem, M.A., Mathieson, P.W., Bates, D.O., Harper, S.J. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-b in human astrocytoma. Gollmer, J.C., Ladoux, A., Gioanni, J., Paquis, P., Dubreuil, A., Chatel, M., Frelin, C. Neuro-oncology (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C and its receptors in non-small cell lung cancer. Kajita, T., Ohta, Y., Kimura, K., Tamura, M., Tanaka, Y., Tsunezuka, Y., Oda, M., Sasaki, T., Watanabe, G. Br. J. Cancer (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor-C in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue. Wauke, K., Nagashima, M., Ishiwata, T., Asano, G., Yoshino, S. J. Rheumatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Immunodetection and molecular forms of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor-C. Duff, S.E., Li, C., Renehan, A., O'Dwyer, S.T., Kumar, S. Int. J. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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