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Disease relevance of Blinking


Psychiatry related information on Blinking


High impact information on Blinking

  • Studies of the blink reflex and spontaneous blinking have provided useful neurophysiologic information on brainstem function that is sensitive to changes in brain dopamine concentrations [8].
  • Treated gerbils received sodium pentobarbital (70 mg/kg) intarperitoneally 1 hour after clasp removal and a smaller dose (50 mg/kg) 2 hours later; these animals lost corneal reflexes but retained spontaneous respiration and were kept normothermic [9].
  • Our results indicate that patients with SD have increased excitability of blink reflexes, which suggests that the dystonia involves not only the larynx but also other anatomical structures [2].
  • However, the delay in recovery of SP compared to the more rapid and complete recovery of sensitivity suggests that SP in the cornea is not directly involved in mediation of the blink reflex [10].
  • These two patterns of data are discussed and further electrophysiological studies provide some evidence for two different mechanisms in the depressive effects of EA and TNS upon the nociceptive component of the blink reflex in man [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Blinking


Biological context of Blinking


Anatomical context of Blinking

  • We investigated the neural circuit through which a loss of dopamine in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) leads to increased reflex blink excitability [18].
  • These findings may be interpreted as showing abnormal control of the interneuronal networks mediating the blink reflex in patients with dystonia affecting sites other than the facial muscles [19].
  • SSR180575 also improved functional recovery in acrylamide-induced neuropathy in the rat when given therapeutically at 2.5 to 10 mg/kg/day p.o. Furthermore, SSR180575 (3 mg/kg i.p. b.i.d.) accelerated functional recovery of the blink reflex after local injury of the facial nerve in the rat [20].
  • Laser radiant-heat pulses selectively excite the free nerve endings in the superficial layers of the skin and activate mechano-thermal nociceptive afferents; when directed to the perioral or supraorbital skin, high-intensity laser pulses evoke a blink-like response in the orbicularis oculi muscle (the laser blink reflex, LBR) [21].
  • Since nicotine modified only one component of the supraorbitally elicited blink reflex, nicotine must act primarily on the central nervous system rather than at the muscle [22].

Associations of Blinking with chemical compounds

  • Nitrous oxide administration resulted in a potent depression of the two components of the blink reflex [23].
  • In humans and rats we found that nicotine transiently modifies the blink reflex [22].
  • Thiopental was infused at 25 mg/30 s for adults and 0.3 mg/kg/20 s in children until loss of corneal reflexes or a total of 1 g [24].
  • In addition, it is suggested that the pathways of late blink reflex (R2) pass through the medial lemniscus in the ventromedial medulla instead of the spinal trigeminal tract in the dorsolateral medulla [25].
  • Since clonidine differentially modulated blink reflex responses, it is likely to assume that such a disfacilitation concerns mostly pontine units mediating the R1 [26].

Gene context of Blinking

  • Blink reflexes in severe traumatic coma [27].
  • Effect of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist GR79236 on trigeminal nociception with blink reflex recordings in healthy human subjects [28].
  • Although the sensitivity of the photic blink reflex to attention is controversial, R50 latency showed a pattern suggestive of inhibition of return (Posner & Cohen, 1984, Attention and performance, Vol. X, pp. 531-556, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum) [29].
  • The abnormal blink reflex in patients with MS consist of prolonged latencies and absences of R1 and R2 responses and are mainly due to demyelinating lesions around the pans [30].
  • The aim of the study was to correlate the features of the blink reflex (BR) with the genetic abnormalities and the clinical findings in patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and asymptomatic gene carriers [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Blinking


  1. Acute migraine headache: possible sensitization of neurons in the spinal trigeminal nucleus? Kaube, H., Katsarava, Z., Przywara, S., Drepper, J., Ellrich, J., Diener, H.C. Neurology (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Blink reflex excitability recovery curves in patients with spasmodic dysphonia. Cohen, L.G., Ludlow, C.L., Warden, M., Estegui, M., Agostino, R., Sedory, S.E., Holloway, E., Dambrosia, J., Hallett, M. Neurology (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Preservation of photic blink reflex in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Nakamura, M., Sekiya, Y., Yamamoto, M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Midbrain 6-hydroxydopamine lesions modulate blink reflex excitability. Basso, M.A., Strecker, R.E., Evinger, C. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects on neurobehavioral performance of chronic exposure to chemically contaminated well water. Kilburn, K.H., Warshaw, R.H. Toxicology and industrial health. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Early detection of Huntington's disease. Blink reflex and levodopa load in presymptomatic and incipient subjects. Esteban, A., Mateo, D., Giménez-Roldán, S. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Neurotoxicity from airborne chemicals around a superfund site. Kilburn, K.H. Environmental research. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Clinical physiology of dopa dyskinesia. Hallett, M. Ann. Neurol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Delayed pentobarbital administration limits ischemic brain damage in gerbils. Levy, D.E., Brierley, J.B. Ann. Neurol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Corneal sensitivity and substance P in experimental herpes simplex keratitis in mice. Tullo, A.B., Keen, P., Blyth, W.A., Hill, T.J., Easty, D.L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparative effects of electroacupuncture and transcutaneous nerve stimulation on the human blink reflex. Willer, J.C., Roby, A., Boulu, P., Boureau, F. Pain (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. The blink reflex before and after percutaneous glycerol rhizotomy in patients with trigeminal neuralgia--a prospective study of 28 patients. Kumar, R., Mahapatra, A.K., Dash, H.H. Acta neurochirurgica. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Neurophysiological assessment of alpha pattern coma. Obeso, J.A., Iragui, M.I., Marti-Masso, J.F., Maravi, E., Teijeira, J.M., Carrera, N., Teijeria, J. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. The blink reflex and the corneal reflex are followed by cortical activity resembling the nociceptive potentials induced by trigeminal laser stimulation in man. de Tommaso, M., Libro, G., Guido, M., Sciruicchio, V., Puca, F. Neurosci. Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Diltiazem spares corneal A delta mechano and C fiber cold receptors and preserves epithelial wound healing. Mikulec, A.A., Lukatch, H.S., Monroe, F.A., MacIver, M.B. Cornea (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Pontine hypoplasia in a child with sensorineural deafness. Maeoka, Y., Yamamoto, T., Ohtani, K., Takeshita, K. Brain Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Electrophysiological disorders in multiple sclerosis and optic neuritis. Sanders, E.A., Reulen, J.P., Hogenhuis, L.A., van der Velde, E.A. The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques. (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. An explanation for reflex blink hyperexcitability in Parkinson's disease. I. Superior colliculus. Basso, M.A., Powers, A.S., Evinger, C. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. The blink reflex in patients with idiopathic torsion dystonia. Nakashima, K., Rothwell, J.C., Thompson, P.D., Day, B.L., Berardelli, A., Agostino, R., Artieda, J., Papas, S.M., Obeso, J.A., Marsden, C.D. Arch. Neurol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. SSR180575 (7-chloro-N,N,5-trimethyl-4-oxo-3-phenyl-3,5-dihydro-4H-pyridazino[4,5-b]indole-1-acetamide), a peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligand, promotes neuronal survival and repair. Ferzaz, B., Brault, E., Bourliaud, G., Robert, J.P., Poughon, G., Claustre, Y., Marguet, F., Liere, P., Schumacher, M., Nowicki, J.P., Fournier, J., Marabout, B., Sevrin, M., George, P., Soubrie, P., Benavides, J., Scatton, B. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Nociceptive quality of the laser-evoked blink reflex in humans. Romaniello, A., Valls-Solé, J., Iannetti, G.D., Truini, A., Manfredi, M., Cruccu, G. J. Neurophysiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. A role for the basal ganglia in nicotinic modulation of the blink reflex. Evinger, C., Basso, M.A., Manning, K.A., Sibony, P.A., Pellegrini, J.J., Horn, A.K. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Failure of naloxone to reverse the nitrous oxide-induced depression of a brain stem reflex: an electrophysiologic and double-blind study in humans. Willer, J.C., Bergeret, S., Gaudy, J.H., Dauthier, C. Anesthesiology (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Evaluation of the thiopental test in epilepsy surgery patients. Dasheiff, R.M., Kofke, W.A. Epilepsy Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Wallenberg's lateral medullary syndrome with loss of pain and temperature sensation on the contralateral face: clinical, MRI and electrophysiological studies. Chia, L.G., Shen, W.C. J. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Involvement of the noradrenergic system in modulating the blink reflex in humans. Palmeri, A., Restivo, D.A., Casabona, A. Brain Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Blink reflexes in severe traumatic coma. Buonaguidi, R., Rossi, B., Sartucci, F., Ravelli, V. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1979) [Pubmed]
  28. Effect of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist GR79236 on trigeminal nociception with blink reflex recordings in healthy human subjects. Giffin, N.J., Kowacs, F., Libri, V., Williams, P., Goadsby, P.J., Kaube, H. Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Prepulse effects on the photic eyeblink reflex: evidence for startle-dazzle theory. Burke, J., Hackley, S.A. Psychophysiology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Multiple sclerosis and HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis are two distinct clinical entities. Leon-S, F.E., Arimura, K., Osame, M. Mult. Scler. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Features of the blink reflex in individuals at risk for Huntington's disease. de Tommaso, M., Sciruicchio, V., Spinelli, A., Specchio, N., Difruscolo, O., Puca, F., Specchio, L.M. Muscle Nerve (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Eye examination-induced syncope Role of trigeminal afferents. Khurana, R.K. Clin. Auton. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Evoked potentials. With special reference to the diagnostic value in multiple sclerosis. Kjaer, M. Acta neurologica Scandinavica. (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Influences of dopaminergic systems on the blink reflex. Raffaele, R., Emery, P., Palmeri, A., Ricca, G., Perciavalle, V. Italian journal of neurological sciences. (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. Effects of testosterone on a cross-facial nerve graft model. Bodjanac, W.G., Terzis, J.K., Liuzzi, F.J. Journal of reconstructive microsurgery. (2000) [Pubmed]
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