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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Tanning


Psychiatry related information on Tanning

  • Two of these analogs, a linear peptide, melanotan I, and a cyclic truncated peptide, melanotan II (MTI and MTII, respectively) have been patented and tested clinically for studies on tanning of the skin (MTI) and for diagnosis and treatment of male erectile dysfunction (MTII) [6].

High impact information on Tanning

  • Our findings suggest that in humans, as in other mammals, the MC1R is a control point in the regulation of pigmentation phenotype and, more importantly, that variations in this protein are associated with a poor tanning response [7].
  • The latter was obtained from human cords and was made available as an onshelf graft for surgery following glutaraldehyde tanning [8].
  • Individuals with a low tanning ability and a low DRC had a higher risk for CMM (OR = 8.6; 95% CI = 2.7 to 27.5) than individuals with a higher tanning ability and a high DRC [9].
  • Overall, any use of tanning devices was associated with odds ratios of 2.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7 to 3.8) for SCC and 1.5 (95% CI = 1.1 to 2.1) for BCC [10].
  • Forty-three years after its initial description, the elucidation of the molecular identity of bursicon and the verification of its receptor allow for studies of bursicon actions in regulating cuticle tanning, wing expansion, and as yet unknown functions [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Tanning


Biological context of Tanning


Anatomical context of Tanning


Associations of Tanning with chemical compounds


Gene context of Tanning

  • In ultraviolet-induced tanning, the protein levels of various gene products critical for pigmentation (including tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1) are increased in response to ultraviolet B irradiation, but changes in mRNA levels of these factors have not been investigated in vivo [28].
  • Two kinds of phenoloxidases, laccase and tyrosinase, have been proposed to participate in tanning, but proof of the true identity of the enzyme(s) responsible for this process has been elusive [25].
  • The sas gene was cloned, and both the cuticular tanning and the larval lethal phenotypes were complemented by P-element-mediated transformation with a genomic DNA-cDNA construct [29].
  • Our results suggest that the mechanism of the tanning response of human skin may involve the transcriptional regulation of certain pigmentary genes, and that pro-opiomelanocortin-derived melanocortins such as alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone may play a part in regulating these genes in vivo [28].
  • This superpotent analog is now entering a Phase I clinical trial with possible therapeutic applications for the treatment of hypomelanotic disorders such as vitiligo and for pharmacologic tanning without the need for sunlight exposure [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tanning

  • An MSH analogue ([Nle4,D-Phe7]alpha-MSH) that exhibits superpotency and prolonged biological activity has been synthesized, biologically characterized, and is presently in clinical trials to determine its possible clinical use in tanning of the skin [31].
  • A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure has been developed for the quantification of Melanotan-II (MT-II), a cyclic heptapeptide which promotes rapid tanning of the skin, in rat plasma [32].
  • Inhibition of UVR-induced tanning and immunosuppression by topical applications of vitamins C and E to the skin of hairless (hr/hr) mice [33].
  • Primary prevention behaviors include applying SPF 15+ sunscreen 30 minutes before exposure, reapplying SPF 15+ sunscreen every 1 1/2 to 2 hours or after swimming or sweating, dressing in protective clothing, using shade, limiting exposure during peak sun hours, and avoiding artificial sources of ultraviolet radiation such as tanning beds [34].
  • These results demonstrate that MT-II has tanning activity in humans given only 5 low doses every other day by subcutaneous injection [35].


  1. Aplastic anemia associated with canthaxanthin ingested for 'tanning' purposes. Bluhm, R., Branch, R., Johnston, P., Stein, R. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Cutaneous malignant melanoma and exposure to sunlamps or sunbeds: an EORTC multicenter case-control study in Belgium, France and Germany. EORTC Melanoma Cooperative Group. Autier, P., Doré, J.F., Lejeune, F., Koelmel, K.F., Geffeler, O., Hille, P., Cesarini, J.P., Lienard, D., Liabeuf, A., Joarlette, M. Int. J. Cancer (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Thr40 and Met122 are new partial loss-of-function natural mutations of the human melanocortin 1 receptor. Jiménez-Cervantes, C., Germer, S., González, P., Sánchez, J., Sánchez, C.O., García-Borrón, J.C. FEBS Lett. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Efficacy of acitretin and commercial tanning bed therapy for psoriasis. Carlin, C.S., Callis, K.P., Krueger, G.G. Archives of dermatology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in the oxidation of tyrosine and dopa to melanin and in skin tanning. Joshi, P.C., Carraro, C., Pathak, M.A. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Melanocortin peptide therapeutics: historical milestones, clinical studies and commercialization. Hadley, M.E., Dorr, R.T. Peptides (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Variants of the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor gene are associated with red hair and fair skin in humans. Valverde, P., Healy, E., Jackson, I., Rees, J.L., Thody, A.J. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Human umbilical cord. A new source for vascular prosthesis. Dardik, H., Ibrahim, I.M., Baier, R., Sprayregen, S., Levy, M., Dardik, I.I. JAMA (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. DNA repair, dysplastic nevi, and sunlight sensitivity in the development of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Landi, M.T., Baccarelli, A., Tarone, R.E., Pesatori, A., Tucker, M.A., Hedayati, M., Grossman, L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Use of tanning devices and risk of basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers. Karagas, M.R., Stannard, V.A., Mott, L.A., Slattery, M.J., Spencer, S.K., Weinstock, M.A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Bursicon, the insect cuticle-hardening hormone, is a heterodimeric cystine knot protein that activates G protein-coupled receptor LGR2. Luo, C.W., Dewey, E.M., Sudo, S., Ewer, J., Hsu, S.Y., Honegger, H.W., Hsueh, A.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. The effect of niacinamide on reducing cutaneous pigmentation and suppression of melanosome transfer. Hakozaki, T., Minwalla, L., Zhuang, J., Chhoa, M., Matsubara, A., Miyamoto, K., Greatens, A., Hillebrand, G.G., Bissett, D.L., Boissy, R.E. Br. J. Dermatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Suntanning and cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3. Matsuoka, L.Y., Wortsman, J., Hollis, B.W. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. The differential diagnosis of crystals in the retina. Nadim, F., Walid, H., Adib, J. International ophthalmology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Enzyme electrode composed of the pyruvate oxidase from Pediococcus species coupled to an oxygen electrode for measurements of pyruvate in biological media. Zapata-Bacri, A.M., Burstein, C. Biosensors. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Transcriptional activation of tyrosinase and TRP-1 by p53 links UV irradiation to the protective tanning response. Nylander, K., Bourdon, J.C., Bray, S.E., Gibbs, N.K., Kay, R., Hart, I., Hall, P.A. J. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Tyrosinase gene expression is regulated by p53. Khlgatian, M.K., Hadshiew, I.M., Asawanonda, P., Yaar, M., Eller, M.S., Fujita, M., Norris, D.A., Gilchrest, B.A. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Experimental preparation of deantigenized vascular heterografts and study of tolerance after transplantation. Ionescu, G., Neumann, E., Domokos, M., Andercou, A., Cardan, E., Cucu, A. Acta chirurgica Belgica. (1977) [Pubmed]
  19. Successful arterial substitution with modified human umbilical vein. Dardik, H., Dardik, I.I. Ann. Surg. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Osmotic and peroxidative fragilities of erythrocytes from vitamin E-deficient lead-poisoned rats. Levander, O.A., Ferretti, R.J., Morris, V.C. J. Nutr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. L-asparaginase bound to collagen membranes: effect of glutaraldehyde crosslinking on stabilization of catalytic activity. Jefferies, S.R., LaPresto, P., Bernath, F.R. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Mosquito dopa decarboxylase cDNA characterization and blood-meal-induced ovarian expression. Ferdig, M.T., Li, J., Severson, D.W., Christensen, B.M. Insect Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Depigmentation therapy with Q-switched ruby laser after tanning in vitiligo universalis. Kim, Y.J., Chung, B.S., Choi, K.C. Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Involvement of tyrosine residues in the tanning of proteins by 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. Manthey, M.K., Pyne, S.G., Truscott, R.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Laccase 2 is the phenoloxidase gene required for beetle cuticle tanning. Arakane, Y., Muthukrishnan, S., Beeman, R.W., Kanost, M.R., Kramer, K.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Spontaneous host endothelial growth on bioprostheses. Influence of fixation. Hoffman, D., Gong, G., Liao, K., Macaluso, F., Nikolic, S.D., Frater, R.W. Circulation (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. 3':5'-cyclic AMP and hormonal control of puparium formation in the fleshfly Sarcophaga bullata. Fraenkel, G., Blechl, A., Blechl, J., Herman, P., Seligman, M.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  28. Increase of pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA prior to tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1, dopachrome tautomerase, Pmel-17/gp100, and P-protein mRNA in human skin after ultraviolet B irradiation. Suzuki, I., Kato, T., Motokawa, T., Tomita, Y., Nakamura, E., Katagiri, T. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. The Drosophila melanogaster stranded at second (sas) gene encodes a putative epidermal cell surface receptor required for larval development. Schonbaum, C.P., Organ, E.L., Qu, S., Cavener, D.R. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Toxicologic studies of a superpotent alpha-melanotropin, [Nle4, D-Phe7]alpha-MSH. Dorr, R.T., Dawson, B.V., al-Obeidi, F., Hadley, M.E., Levine, N., Hruby, V.J. Investigational new drugs. (1988) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of a melanotropic peptide on melanoma cell growth, metastasis, and invasion. Gehlsen, K.R., Hadley, M.E., Levine, N., Ray, C.G., Hendrix, M.J. Pigment Cell Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the alpha-melanotropin[4,10] fragment analogue (Melanotan-II) in rat plasma. Ugwu, S.O., Blanchard, J. J. Chromatogr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Inhibition of UVR-induced tanning and immunosuppression by topical applications of vitamins C and E to the skin of hairless (hr/hr) mice. Quevedo, W.C., Holstein, T.J., Dyckman, J., McDonald, C.J., Isaacson, E.L. Pigment Cell Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Approaches to the prevention and control of skin cancer. Cummings, S.R., Tripp, M.K., Herrmann, N.B. Cancer Metastasis Rev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Evaluation of melanotan-II, a superpotent cyclic melanotropic peptide in a pilot phase-I clinical study. Dorr, R.T., Lines, R., Levine, N., Brooks, C., Xiang, L., Hruby, V.J., Hadley, M.E. Life Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
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