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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Toxoplasmosis


Psychiatry related information on Toxoplasmosis


High impact information on Toxoplasmosis

  • In an intention-to-treat analysis, after a median follow-up of 539 days P. carinii pneumonia developed in 10 patients in each group, whereas toxoplasmosis developed in 32 of 176 patients in the pentamidine group and 19 of 173 patients in the dapsone-pyrimethamine group [1].
  • Our findings identify the CBL domain of MIC3 as a key player in toxoplasmosis and reveal the synergistic role of MICs in virulence, supporting the idea that parasites have evolved multiple ligand-receptor interactions to ensure invasion of different cells types during the course of infection [7].
  • Efficacy of atovaquone in treatment of toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS. The NIAID-Clinical Center Intramural AIDS Program [8].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thrice-weekly trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is an effective and well-tolerated regimen for the simultaneous primary prophylaxis of P. carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmosis in patients infected with HIV [9].
  • Although the treatment of toxoplasmosis remains a challenge, alternatives to sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine are now available [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Toxoplasmosis


Biological context of Toxoplasmosis


Anatomical context of Toxoplasmosis


Gene context of Toxoplasmosis

  • TNFR1/2(0/0) and TNFR1(0/0) mice succumbed to toxoplasmosis within 17 and 27 days, respectively, whereas TNFR2(0/0) and wt mice were equally resistant to acute toxoplasmosis [26].
  • These studies revealed that p40(-/-) mice rapidly succumbed to toxoplasmosis, while p35(-/-) mice displayed enhanced resistance though they eventually succumbed to this infection [27].
  • Decreased resistance of TNF receptor p55- and p75-deficient mice to chronic toxoplasmosis despite normal activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in vivo [28].
  • These data suggest that proinflammatory chemokine secretion is an important host cell response to toxoplasmosis and that the release of IL-1alpha and other mediators from lysed host cells is critical for this chemokine response [29].
  • This mechanism may influence the role of TNF-alpha in toxoplasmosis [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Toxoplasmosis


  1. Dapsone-pyrimethamine compared with aerosolized pentamidine as primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmosis in HIV infection. The PRIO Study Group. Girard, P.M., Landman, R., Gaudebout, C., Olivares, R., Saimot, A.G., Jelazko, P., Gaudebout, C., Certain, A., Boué, F., Bouvet, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Treatment for cerebral toxoplasmosis protects against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS. The Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Heald, A., Flepp, M., Chave, J.P., Malinverni, R., Rüttimann, S., Gabriel, V., Renold, C., Sugar, A., Hirschel, B. Ann. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Enhanced cytotoxicity of IFN-gamma-producing CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for T. gondii-infected human melanoma cells. Yang, T.H., Aosai, F., Norose, K., Ueda, M., Yano, A. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. AIDS-defining diseases in 250 HIV-infected patients; a comparative study of clinical and autopsy diagnoses. d'Arminio Monforte, A., Vago, L., Lazzarin, A., Boldorini, R., Bini, T., Guzzetti, S., Antinori, S., Moroni, M., Costanzi, G. AIDS (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Toxoplasmosis presenting as panhypopituitarism in a patient with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Milligan, S.A., Katz, M.S., Craven, P.C., Strandberg, D.A., Russell, I.J., Becker, R.A. Am. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: cerebral computed tomographic manifestations. Whelan, M.A., Kricheff, I.I., Handler, M., Ho, V., Crystal, K., Gopinathan, G., Laubenstein, L. Radiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Synergistic role of micronemal proteins in Toxoplasma gondii virulence. Cérède, O., Dubremetz, J.F., Soête, M., Deslée, D., Vial, H., Bout, D., Lebrun, M. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Efficacy of atovaquone in treatment of toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS. The NIAID-Clinical Center Intramural AIDS Program. Kovacs, J.A. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Intermittent trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole compared with dapsone-pyrimethamine for the simultaneous primary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis pneumonia and toxoplasmosis in patients infected with HIV. Podzamczer, D., Salazar, A., Jiménez, J., Consiglio, E., Santín, M., Casanova, A., Rufí, G., Gudiol, F. Ann. Intern. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. NIH conference. Recent advances in the management of AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Lane, H.C., Laughon, B.E., Falloon, J., Kovacs, J.A., Davey, R.T., Polis, M.A., Masur, H. Ann. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Central-nervous-system toxoplasmosis in homosexual men and parenteral drug abusers. Wong, B., Gold, J.W., Brown, A.E., Lange, M., Fried, R., Grieco, M., Mildvan, D., Giron, J., Tapper, M.L., Lerner, C.W. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular characterization of a 23-kilodalton major antigen secreted by Toxoplasma gondii. Cesbron-Delauw, M.F., Guy, B., Torpier, G., Pierce, R.J., Lenzen, G., Cesbron, J.Y., Charif, H., Lepage, P., Darcy, F., Lecocq, J.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Tumor necrosis factor-independent protective effect of recombinant IFN-gamma against acute toxoplasmosis in T cell-deficient mice. Suzuki, Y., Joh, K., Kobayashi, A. J. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Randomized trial of dapsone and aerosolized pentamidine for the prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmic encephalitis. Torres, R.A., Barr, M., Thorn, M., Gregory, G., Kiely, S., Chanin, E., Carlo, C., Martin, M., Thornton, J. Am. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Letter: Sulfisoxazole called suboptimal therapy in toxoplasmosis. Frenkel, J.K. Neurology (1975) [Pubmed]
  16. Impairment of the cellular immune response in acute murine toxoplasmosis: regulation of interleukin 2 production and macrophage-mediated inhibitory effects. Haque, S., Khan, I., Haque, A., Kasper, L. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Recurrent congenital toxoplasmosis in a woman with lupus erythematosus. D'Ercole, C., Boubli, L., Franck, J., Casta, M., Harle, J.R., Chagnon, C., Cravello, L., Leclaire, M., Blanc, B. Prenat. Diagn. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Neuropathology and host-parasite relationship of acute experimental toxoplasmosis of the blue fox (Alopex lagopus). Bjerkås, I. Vet. Pathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. The clastogenic effect of pyrimethamine (Daraprim) on human chromosomes in lymphocyte cultures. Egeli, U., Erdogan, G. Cell Biol. Toxicol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Application of the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients. Roth, A., Roth, B., Höffken, G., Steuber, S., Khalifa, K.I., Janitschke, K. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. A role for inducible costimulator protein in the CD28- independent mechanism of resistance to Toxoplasma gondii. Villegas, E.N., Lieberman, L.A., Mason, N., Blass, S.L., Zediak, V.P., Peach, R., Horan, T., Yoshinaga, S., Hunter, C.A. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Polymerase chain reaction on sputum for the diagnosis of pulmonary toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients. Abraham, B., Tamby, I., Reynes, J., Bastien, P. AIDS (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Coinfection with Toxoplasma gondii inhibits antigen-specific Th2 immune responses, tissue inflammation, and parasitism in BALB/c mice infected with Leishmania major. Santiago, H.C., Oliveira, M.A., Bambirra, E.A., Faria, A.M., Afonso, L.C., Vieira, L.Q., Gazzinelli, R.T. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Prophylaxis of toxoplasmosis infection with pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (Fansidar) in bone marrow transplant recipients. Foot, A.B., Garin, Y.J., Ribaud, P., Devergie, A., Derouin, F., Gluckman, E. Bone Marrow Transplant. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Toxoplasma gondii. Zygmunt, D.J. Infection control and hospital epidemiology : the official journal of the Society of Hospital Epidemiologists of America. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Crucial role of TNF receptor type 1 (p55), but not of TNF receptor type 2 (p75), in murine toxoplasmosis. Deckert-Schlüter, M., Bluethmann, H., Rang, A., Hof, H., Schlüter, D. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. IL-23 provides a limited mechanism of resistance to acute toxoplasmosis in the absence of IL-12. Lieberman, L.A., Cardillo, F., Owyang, A.M., Rennick, D.M., Cua, D.J., Kastelein, R.A., Hunter, C.A. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Decreased resistance of TNF receptor p55- and p75-deficient mice to chronic toxoplasmosis despite normal activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase in vivo. Yap, G.S., Scharton-Kersten, T., Charest, H., Sher, A. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Chemokine secretion of human cells in response to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Denney, C.F., Eckmann, L., Reed, S.L. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Toxoplasma gondii infection can regulate the expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha receptors on human cells in vitro. Derouich-Guergour, D., Aldebert, D., Vigan, I., Jouvin-Marche, E., Marche, P.N., Aubert, D., Ambroise-Thomas, P., Pelloux, H. Parasite Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Successful toxoplasmosis prophylaxis after orthotopic cardiac transplantation with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Baden, L.R., Katz, J.T., Franck, L., Tsang, S., Hall, M., Rubin, R.H., Jarcho, J. Transplantation (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Bioluminescence imaging of Toxoplasma gondii infection in living mice reveals dramatic differences between strains. Saeij, J.P., Boyle, J.P., Grigg, M.E., Arrizabalaga, G., Boothroyd, J.C. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Isocratic reversed-phase HPLC method to measure pyrimethamine extracted from plasma of infants treated for toxoplasmosis. Zytkovicz, T.H., Salter, J., Hennigan, L., Timperi, R., Maguire, J., Hoff, R. Clin. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Synergistic activity of clarithromycin and minocycline in an animal model of acute experimental toxoplasmosis. Derouin, F., Caroff, B., Chau, F., Prokocimer, P., Pocidalo, J.J. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Hyperperfusion and early technetium-99m-HMPAO SPECT appearance of central nervous system toxoplasmosis. Catafau, A.M., Solá, M., Lomeña, F.J., Guelar, A., Miró, J.M., Setoain, J. J. Nucl. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
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