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Gene Review

PHP  -  panhypopituitarism

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of PHP

  • This form of the disorder is termed pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia) [1].
  • The increased frequency of serious infectious diseases in patients with PHP is likely to contribute to increased age-specific mortality [2].
  • In patients with PHP and in those with vitamin D deficiency, there was a sufficiently close relationship between increments in iPTH (delta iPTH) and in UcAMP (delta UcAMP) (r = 0.90, P less than 0.001 and r = 0.67, P less than 0.02, respectively) to use this model to assess renal sensitivity for changes to endogenous PTH levels [3].
  • Baseline levels and increases in urinary cyclic AMP excretion (UcAMP) and immunoreactive parathormone (iPTH) were studied before and during infusion of EDTA in euparathyroid patients with renal stones (n=11), patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP; n=14) and patients with vitamin D deficiency (n = 12) [3].
  • Exocrine pancreatic secretion and plasma immunoreactive secretin (IRS) levels have been simultaneously observed in response to intraduodenal infusion of 1-phenyl-1-hydroxy-n-pentane (PHP) and 0.1 N HCl in normal subjects, patients with diabetes mellitus and patients with chronic pancreatitis by use of this tube [4].

Psychiatry related information on PHP


High impact information on PHP


Chemical compound and disease context of PHP


Biological context of PHP

  • In three PHP 1b kindreds, we analyzed simple sequence polymorphisms in three microsatellite markers flanking the PTH type 2 receptor locus located at 2q33 [19].
  • Altered benzodiazepine sensitivity in subjects with a history of parental alcoholism (PHP) compared to control subjects (NC) has been reported for regional brain blood volume, eye movement tasks, and subjective effects [20].
  • METHODS: After obtaining consent, visual acuity with habitual correction, masked PHP testing, stereoscopic color fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography were performed [21].
  • PHP may therefore serve as a model in studying the pleiotropic consequences of impaired Gs-mediated signal transduction [22].
  • A PHP application, Prophage Finder, has been developed and implemented to predict prophage loci, based upon clusters of phage-related gene products encoded within DNA sequences [23].

Anatomical context of PHP

  • These findings demonstrate that the resistance to PTH seen in PHP does not extend to the pituitary gland [24].
  • Cell membranes from patients with PHP type Ia and from patients with pseudoPHP contained levels of immunoactive Gs alpha that were equivalently reduced (43 +/- 4% vs. 42 +/- 5%, respectively) [1].
  • By contrast, erythrocyte membranes from patients with PHP type Ib, who have normal Gs alpha activity, had normal levels of Gs alpha immunoactivity (101 +/- 7%) [1].
  • In an attempt to more completely define the histopathologic features of the portal vein hyperperfusion or small-for-size syndrome (PHP/SFSS), we strictly identified 5 PHP/SFSS cases among 39 (5/39; 13%) adult living donor liver transplants (ALDLT) completed between 11/01 and 09/03 [25].
  • METHODS: 38 adult male gerbils were divided into 4 groups, such as normal group without ischemia or treatment, PHP group undergoing an exchanging blood transfusion with 5.0 ml PHP, ischemia group undergoing 5-min forebrain ischemia, and PHP-ischemia group with 5.0 ml PHP partial blood replacement prior to 5-min forebrain ischemia [26].

Associations of PHP with chemical compounds


Other interactions of PHP


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PHP

  • The package is based on freely available technologies like Apache as web server, PHP as server-side scripting language and OpenPBS as queuing system and is available free of charge for academic and non-profit institutions [36].
  • We reviewed the records of 65 patients with panhypopituitarism (PHP) for the frequency and types of infections requiring hospitalization, and documented serious infections in 13 of 65 patients with PHP [2].
  • PHP subjects had decreased sensitivity to the EEG effects of alprazolam compared to NC subjects [20].
  • We developed an assay system for LPL and HTGL in human PHP by selective immunoprecipitation of each enzyme with the corresponding antiserum [37].
  • Early diagnosis of PH is always confirmed in the long term [38].


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  2. High frequency of serious infections in patients with panhypopituitarism: a case-control study. Sharma, M.D., Sagar, B., Wang, S., White Jr, A.C., Balasubramanyam, A. Clin. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. The renal sensitivity for endogenous parathormone in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency and renal stones. vd Velden, P.C., Fischer, H.R., Schopman, W., van Roon, F., Koorevaar, G., Hackeng, W.H., Silberbusch, J. Horm. Metab. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Plasma secretin level and exocrine pancreatic secretion in response to intraduodenal infusion of 1-phenyl-1-hydroxy-n-pentane and HCl by using a new four lumen tube. Endo, K., Koizumi, M., Kanazawa, Y., Yoshida, S., Miura, M., Kanno, T., Koizumi, F., Goto, Y. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Plasma growth hormone, insulin, and glucagon responses to arginine infusion in children and adolescents with idiopathic short stature, isolated growth hormone deficiency, panhypopituitarism, and anorexia nervosa. Sizonenko, P.C., Rabinovitch, A., Schneider, P., Paunier, L., Wollheim, C.B., Zahnd, G. Pediatr. Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
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  9. Four varied cases of intravascular lymphomatosis and a literature review. Demirer, T., Dail, D.H., Aboulafia, D.M. Cancer (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Cushing's disease. Selective trans-sphenoidal resection of pituitary microadenomas. Tyrrell, J.B., Brooks, R.M., Fitzgerald, P.A., Cofoid, P.B., Forsham, P.H., Wilson, C.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Over- and underdosage of SOX3 is associated with infundibular hypoplasia and hypopituitarism. Woods, K.S., Cundall, M., Turton, J., Rizotti, K., Mehta, A., Palmer, R., Wong, J., Chong, W.K., Al-Zyoud, M., El-Ali, M., Otonkoski, T., Martinez-Barbera, J.P., Thomas, P.Q., Robinson, I.C., Lovell-Badge, R., Woodward, K.J., Dattani, M.T. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. X-linked recessive panhypopituitarism associated with a regional duplication in Xq25-q26. Lagerström-Fermér, M., Sundvall, M., Johnsen, E., Warne, G.L., Forrest, S.M., Zajac, J.D., Rickards, A., Ravine, D., Landegren, U., Pettersson, U. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Heterozygous HESX1 mutations associated with isolated congenital pituitary hypoplasia and septo-optic dysplasia. Thomas, P.Q., Dattani, M.T., Brickman, J.M., McNay, D., Warne, G., Zacharin, M., Cameron, F., Hurst, J., Woods, K., Dunger, D., Stanhope, R., Forrest, S., Robinson, I.C., Beddington, R.S. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Antitumor activity in melanoma and anti-self responses in a phase I trial with the anti-cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 monoclonal antibody CP-675,206. Ribas, A., Camacho, L.H., Lopez-Berestein, G., Pavlov, D., Bulanhagui, C.A., Millham, R., Comin-Anduix, B., Reuben, J.M., Seja, E., Parker, C.A., Sharma, A., Glaspy, J.A., Gomez-Navarro, J. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Frequent and frequently overlooked: treatment-induced endocrine dysfunction in adult long-term survivors of primary brain tumors. Arlt, W., Hove, U., Müller, B., Reincke, M., Berweiler, U., Schwab, F., Allolio, B. Neurology (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Radioimmunoassay of human beta-lipotropin in unextracted plasma. Wiedemann, E., Saito, T., Linfoot, J.A., Li, C.H. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Papillary thyroid carcinoma metastatic to the pituitary gland. Masiukiewicz, U.S., Nakchbandi, I.A., Stewart, A.F., Inzucchi, S.E. Thyroid (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Cystic craniopharyngioma: long-term results after intracavitary irradiation with stereotactically applied colloidal beta-emitting radioactive sources. Voges, J., Sturm, V., Lehrke, R., Treuer, H., Gauss, C., Berthold, F. Neurosurgery (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Pseudohypoparathyroidism 1b: exclusion of parathyroid hormone and its receptors as candidate disease genes. Jan de Beur, S.M., Ding, C.L., LaBuda, M.C., Usdin, T.B., Levine, M.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Decreased EEG sensitivity to alprazolam in subjects with a parental history of alcoholism. Sarid-Segal, O., Knapp, C.M., Ciraulo, A.M., Greenblatt, D.J., Shader, R.I., Ciraulo, D.A. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Preferential Hyperacuity Perimeter (PreView PHP) for detecting choroidal neovascularization study. Alster, Y., Bressler, N.M., Bressler, S.B., Brimacombe, J.A., Crompton, R.M., Duh, Y.J., Gabel, V.P., Heier, J.S., Ip, M.S., Loewenstein, A., Packo, K.H., Stur, M., Toaff, T. Ophthalmology (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia. Albright hereditary osteodystrophy: a model for research on G protein-coupled receptors and genomic imprinting. Simon, A., Koppeschaar, H.P., Roijers, J.F., Höppener, J.W., Lips, C.J. The Netherlands journal of medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Prophage Finder: a prophage loci prediction tool for prokaryotic genome sequences. Bose, M., Barber, R.D. In Silico Biol. (Gedrukt) (2006) [Pubmed]
  24. Prolactin and calcitonin responses to parathyroid hormone infusion in hypoparathyroid, pseudohypoparathyroid, and normal subjects. Brickman, A.S., Carlson, H.E., Deftos, L.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Pathophysiologic observations and histopathologic recognition of the portal hyperperfusion or small-for-size syndrome. Demetris, A.J., Kelly, D.M., Eghtesad, B., Fontes, P., Wallis Marsh, J., Tom, K., Tan, H.P., Shaw-Stiffel, T., Boig, L., Novelli, P., Planinsic, R., Fung, J.J., Marcos, A. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of partial blood replacement with pyridoxalated hemoglobin polyoxyethylene conjugate solution on transient cerebral ischemia in gerbil. Hanzawa, K., Ohzeki, H., Moro, H., Eguchi, S., Nakajima, T., Makifuchi, T., Miyashita, K., Nishiura, M., Naritomi, H. Artificial cells, blood substitutes, and immobilization biotechnology. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Spectrophotometric determination of fluoxetine by batch and flow injection methods. Afkhami, A., Madrakian, T., Khalafi, L. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Failure of hypophysectomy to correct pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease in two patients. Cook, D.M., McCarthy, P.J. Arch. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Panhypopituitarism as a model to study the metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in humans. Young, J., Couzinet, B., Nahoul, K., Brailly, S., Chanson, P., Baulieu, E.E., Schaison, G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Plasma testosterone and the diagnosis of panhypopituitarism in women. Raymond, J.P., Predine, J., Merceron, R.E., Milgrom, E., Klotz, H.P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1979) [Pubmed]
  31. Diminished prolactin reserve: a case report. Spitz, I.M., Landau, H., Almaliach, U., Rosen, E., Brautbar, N., Russell, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1977) [Pubmed]
  32. Adrenocorticotropin deficiency in combined pituitary hormone deficiency patients homozygous for a novel PROP1 deletion. Agarwal, G., Bhatia, V., Cook, S., Thomas, P.Q. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Evaluation of secondary adrenal insufficiency: findings by corticotropin-releasing hormone test and magnetic resonance imaging in parallel. Lin, S.Y., Won, J.G., Lee, T.I., Tang, K.T., Lin, H.D. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. A 43-year-old male with untreated panhypopituitarism due to absence of the pituitary stalk: from dwarf to giant. Den Ouden, D.T., Kroon, M., Hoogland, P.H., Geelhoed-Duijvestijn, P.H., Wit, J.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  35. Growth hormones and sex steroid interactions at puberty. Clark, P.A., Rogol, A.D. Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. ClusterControl: a web interface for distributing and monitoring bioinformatics applications on a Linux cluster. Stocker, G., Rieder, D., Trajanoski, Z. Bioinformatics (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Purification and characterization of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase from human postheparin plasma: production of monospecific antibody to the individual lipase. Ikeda, Y., Takagi, A., Yamamoto, A. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1989) [Pubmed]
  38. Residual pituitary function after brain injury-induced hypopituitarism: a prospective 12-month study. Aimaretti, G., Ambrosio, M.R., Di Somma, C., Gasperi, M., Cannavò, S., Scaroni, C., Fusco, A., Del Monte, P., De Menis, E., Faustini-Fustini, M., Grimaldi, F., Logoluso, F., Razzore, P., Rovere, S., Benvenga, S., Degli Uberti, E.C., De Marinis, L., Lombardi, G., Mantero, F., Martino, E., Giordano, G., Ghigo, E. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
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