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Chemical Compound Review

Bishop     2,3-dihexadecoxypropyl- trimethyl-azanium...

Synonyms: ACMC-20my4d, CTK0F2942, AC1L2U9S, 104872-46-0, 138797-39-4
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Disease relevance of 2,3-dicetyloxypropyl-trimethyl-ammonium

  • Ruth Bishop: rotaviruses and vaccines. Interview by Amanda Tattam [1].
  • The present standards, suggested in large part by the investigations of Bishop and Weisfeldt, and the acknowledged toxicity of treatment with bicarbonate led to aggressive use of hyperventilation, the frequent monitoring of pH, and a reduction in bicarbonate administration [2].
  • Transfection experiments have demonstrated that the conserved methylation pattern can be reproduced in a mouse embryonal carcinoma stem cell line via de novo methylation (Turker, M.S., Mummaneni, P., and Bishop, P.L. (1991) Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. 17, 151-157) [3].
  • Louis F. Bishop lecture. Role of coronary artery spasm in symptomatic and silent myocardial ischemia [4].
  • Comparisons with the published sequences of the related snowshoe hare bunyavirus S RNA and its gene products (Bishop et al., Nucleic Acids Res. 10:3703-3713, 1982) indicate that there are a total of 114 nucleotide differences (6 additions or deletions and 108 substitutions) [5].

Psychiatry related information on 2,3-dicetyloxypropyl-trimethyl-ammonium

  • The predictive value of the Bishop pelvic score and other factors regarding the duration of labor (induction-delivery time) and the inducibility of labor (latency period) were evaluated by multiple regression analyses [6].
  • Despite the excessive enthusiasm of some proponents of this field and the negativism of its critics (Bishop 1983 a, b; Duesberg 1983), it is clear that analytical tools and new information will be of value in further studies on experimental cancer, regardless of whether cellular oncogenes (c-onc genes) have anything to do with human cancer or not [7].
  • METHODS: Using the Children's Communication Checklist (Bishop, 1998), we surveyed 142 children who had been referred for clinical investigation, with a predominant diagnosis of either an autistic spectrum condition (n = 87) or conduct disorder (n = 55), and 60 typically developing comparison children [8].
  • METHOD: Parents of young people with OCD (N = 28), other anxiety disorders (N = 28), and no known mental health problems (N = 62) completed the Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 1993), the Coping Responses Inventory (Moos, 1990), and the McMaster family assessment device (Epstein, Baldwin, & Bishop, 1983) [9].
  • The mildly depressed performance of the preterm group on the short-term memory and language measures was attributable to the large deficits on these tests shown by a subgroup of approximately one third of preterm children identified as being "at risk" for persisting language difficulties using the Bus Story Test (Bishop & Edmundson, 1987) [10].

High impact information on 2,3-dicetyloxypropyl-trimethyl-ammonium

  • Nucleotide sequencing has demonstrated that the Small genome segment of Bunyaviruses contains the genetic information for two viral proteins (N and NSs) in overlapping reading frames (Akashi and Bishop, 1983; Cabradilla et al., in press) [11].
  • We proposed previously (Weiss, Varmus and Bishop, 1977) that this nucleotide sequence may be transposed to the 5' termini of viral mRNAs during the genesis of these RNAs [12].
  • In this issue of Neuron, Bishop et al. use time-lapse imaging and serial electron microscopy of developing neuromuscular junctions to describe a novel cellular mechanism in which retracting axon branches shed fragments rich in normal synaptic organelles [13].
  • The PKC1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a homologue of the Ca(2+)-dependent isozymes of mammalian protein kinase C (Levin, D.cE., F. O. Fields, R. Kunisawa, J. M. Bishop, and J. Thorner. 1990. Cell. 62:213-224) [14].
  • To explore the function of the giant AHNAK molecule, first described in 1992 [Shtivelman, E., Cohen, F. E. & Bishop, J. M. (1992) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89, 5472-5476], we created AHNAK null mice by homologous recombination [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of 2,3-dicetyloxypropyl-trimethyl-ammonium


Biological context of 2,3-dicetyloxypropyl-trimethyl-ammonium

  • We propose a model to explain the pattern of capillary regression observed and conclude from these and previous experiments (Lang and Bishop (1993) Cell 74, 453-462), that during regression of the pupillary membrane, the macrophage elicits target cell death by inducing apoptosis [21].
  • The cis-acting element used is an 838-base pair fragment that was shown previously to provide a de novo methylation signal (Mummaneni, P., Bishop, P. L., and Turker, M.S. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 552-558) [22].
  • Northern blot analysis with the c-myb cDNA clone pSG3, which contains the entire open reading frame (ORF) plus 500 base pairs of 3' untranslated sequences (Gerondakis & Bishop, 1986), and genomic probes revealed c-myb RNA species of 4.3 kb in addition to the major 4.0 kb species [23].
  • We find that although the relationship proposed by Ralston & Bishop, between the c-myc oncogene and adenovirus E1a proteins, appears to be significant in the binomial approximation, it is not supported by the full analysis [24].
  • We have previously reported heterologous genetic recombination resulting from crosses involving temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of La Crosse (LAC) group II and snowshoe hare (SSH) group I ts mutants (J. Gentsch, L. R. Wynne, J. P. Clewley, R. E. Shope, and D. H. L. Bishop, J. Virol. 24:893-902, 1977) [25].

Anatomical context of 2,3-dicetyloxypropyl-trimethyl-ammonium

  • We have previously shown that soluble partially degraded fibrin(ogen) remains in solution after fibrin clot formation and is a potent fibroblast mitogen (Gray, A.J., Bishop, J.E., Reeves J.T., Mecham, R.P., and Laurent, G.J. (1995) Am. J. Cell Mol. Biol. 12, 684-690) [26].
  • Proteolysis, chemical modification, and competition experiments suggest that this transport process may be related to that previously described in the endoplasmic reticulum for short-chain phosphatidylcholine (Bishop, W. R., and Bell, R. M. (1985) Cell 42, 51-60) [27].
  • In conclusion, the 5HT projections to the cerebellar nuclei do not appear to be collaterals of those projecting to the cortex (Kerr and Bishop, J Comp Neurol 304:502-515, 1991) [28].
  • Emx2 knockout mice appear to show a shift in the areal identity in the cerebral cortex , which is matched with altered distribution of thalamocortical projections (Bishop et al. [2000] Science 288:344-349; Mallamaci et al. [2000] Nat Neurosci. 3:679-686) [corrected] [29].
  • This fits well with the fact that Rhinolophus lacks an efferent innervation of outer hair cells (Bishop: Ph.D. Thesis, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, '86; Bruns and Schmieszek: Hear. Res. 3:27-43, '80), which are normally innervated by large OCN (Guinan et al: J. Comp. Neurol. 221:358-370, '83) [30].

Associations of 2,3-dicetyloxypropyl-trimethyl-ammonium with other chemical compounds

  • We quantified changes in allele frequency between 1988 and 1996 at three allozyme loci (isocitrate dehydrogenase, Idh; phosphoglucose isomerase, Pgi; and phosphoglucomutase, Pgm) for the leaf beetle Chrysomela aeneicollis in the Bishop Creek region of the Sierra Nevada of California (2900-3300 m) [31].
  • PGE2 is at least as effective as oxytocin regardless of Bishop score or gravidity [32].
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficacy of the misoprostol was measured by the increase in the Bishop score 12 h after giving the treatment, the time between insertion and delivery, the need for oxytocin, and the outcome of the pregnancy [33].
  • STUDY DESIGN: All uncomplicated pregnancies that reached 41 weeks' gestation with a Bishop score of < or = 4 were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) daily cervical examinations, (2) daily membrane stripping, or (3) daily placement of prostaglandin gel until 42 weeks [34].
  • RESULTS: Two hundred milligrams of mifepristone resulted in a favorable cervix (with a Bishop score greater than 6 or in spontaneous labor) in significantly more women than placebo (P = .01) [35].

Gene context of 2,3-dicetyloxypropyl-trimethyl-ammonium

  • This kinetics is compatible with induction of the prothymosin alpha gene by the c-myc protein (Eilers, M., Schirm, S. and Bishop, J.M. (1991) EMBO J., 10, 133-141) [36].
  • For example, it is possible that PGDH activity in lower segment chorion may be reduced in those patients with premature cervical softening, or may be particularly high in those patients with an unfavorable cervix, presenting with a low Bishop score and poor progression at the time of labor [37].
  • We confirmed that Atm-deficient mice display an increased frequency of DNA deletions (Bishop et al., Cancer Res 2000;60:395) [38].
  • When the transgene was bred into a constitutively male line of mice (Odsex; Bishop et al.: Nat Genet 26:490-494, 2000), autofluorescence was visible in genital ridges of XX animals, in the genetic absence of Sry protein [39].
  • METHODS: Urocortin and CRF measurements by radioimmunoassay; digital palpatory cervical examination and Bishop score computation; cervical length and funnelling presence assessment by transvaginal ultrasonography [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of 2,3-dicetyloxypropyl-trimethyl-ammonium

  • Additional significant biological activity for the anti-47 K mol wt immunogen mAb was revealed through results of the in vitro-in vivo neutralization test of Bishop and Miller, in which a 99% or 100% neutralizing activity was demonstrated [41].
  • Sequence analysis revealed that the complementing DNA fragment encoded a partial PKC1 gene, which has previously been isolated as an S. cerevisiae homolog of mammalian protein kinase C genes (D. E. Levin, F. O. Fields, R. Kunisawa, J. M. Bishop, and J. Thorner, Cell 62:213-224, 1990) [42].
  • There were no differences in the indication for induction, preinduction Bishop score, epidural use, or cesarean section rate [43].
  • It was found that there was a significant change in the Bishop score of 3.96 +/- 1.34 points in the stimulated group as compared with the control group 1.04 +/- 1.03 points [44].
  • We successively assayed for fetal fibronectin, determined the Bishop score, and measured cervical length by transvaginal ultrasonography [45].


  1. Ruth Bishop: rotaviruses and vaccines. Interview by Amanda Tattam. Bishop, R. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Cardiovascular pharmacology. I. Jaffe, A.S. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. A cis-acting element accounts for a conserved methylation pattern upstream of the mouse adenine phosphoribosyltransferase gene. Mummaneni, P., Bishop, P.L., Turker, M.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Louis F. Bishop lecture. Role of coronary artery spasm in symptomatic and silent myocardial ischemia. Maseri, A. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Comparison of the sequences and coding of La Crosse and snowshoe hare bunyavirus S RNA species. Akashi, H., Bishop, D.H. J. Virol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Prelabor evaluation of inducibility. Lange, A.P., Secher, N.J., Westergaard, J.G., Skovgård, I. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Onc genes and other new targets for cancer chemotherapy. Busch, H. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Social communication deficits in conduct disorder: a clinical and community survey. Gilmour, J., Hill, B., Place, M., Skuse, D.H. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Mental health, coping and family-functioning in parents of young people with obsessive-compulsive disorder and with anxiety disorders. Derisley, J., Libby, S., Clark, S., Reynolds, S. The British journal of clinical psychology / the British Psychological Society. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Short-term memory and language outcomes after extreme prematurity at birth. Briscoe, J., Gathercole, S.E., Marlow, N. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Multiple leader RNAs and messenger RNAs are transcribed from the La Crosse virus small genome segment. Patterson, J.L., Cabradilla, C., Holloway, B.P., Obijeski, J.F., Kolakofsky, D. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. At least 104 nucleotides are transposed from the 5' terminus of the avian sarcoma virus genome to the 5' termini of smaller viral mRNAs. Cordell, B., Weiss, S.R., Varmus, H.E., Bishop, J.M. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Pruning an axon piece by piece: a new mode of synapse elimination. Koirala, S., Ko, C.P. Neuron (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Mutants in the S. cerevisiae PKC1 gene display a cell cycle-specific osmotic stability defect. Levin, D.E., Bartlett-Heubusch, E. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. The AHNAKs are a class of giant propeller-like proteins that associate with calcium channel proteins of cardiomyocytes and other cells. Komuro, A., Masuda, Y., Kobayashi, K., Babbitt, R., Gunel, M., Flavell, R.A., Marchesi, V.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of the env gene in avian oncoviruses by heteroduplex mapping. Hu, S.F., Lai, M.M., Vogt, P.K. J. Virol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification of mutations in the M RNA of a candidate vaccine strain of Rift Valley fever virus. Takehara, K., Min, M.K., Battles, J.K., Sugiyama, K., Emery, V.C., Dalrymple, J.M., Bishop, D.H. Virology (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Prostaglandin E2 induction of labor for isolated oligohydramnios in women with unfavorable cervix at term. Danon, D., Ben-Haroush, A., Yogev, Y., Bar, J., Hod, M., Pardo, J. Fetal. Diagn. Ther. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Induction of labor in toxemia with misoprostol. Sahin, H.G., Sahin, H.A., Kocer, M. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Induction of labor: Comparison of a cohort with uterine scar from previous cesarean section vs. a cohort with intact uterus. Locatelli, A., Ghidini, A., Ciriello, E., Incerti, M., Bonardi, C., Regalia, A.L. J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Apoptosis during macrophage-dependent ocular tissue remodelling. Lang, R., Lustig, M., Francois, F., Sellinger, M., Plesken, H. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Epigenetic gene inactivation induced by a cis-acting methylation center. Mummaneni, P., Walker, K.A., Bishop, P.L., Turker, M.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Alternative splicing of the chicken c-myb exon 9A. Schuur, E.R., Dasgupta, P., Reddy, E.P., Rabinovich, J.M., Baluda, M.A. Oncogene (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Confidence limits for homology in protein or gene sequences. The c-myc oncogene and adenovirus E1a protein. McLachlan, A.D., Boswell, D.R. J. Mol. Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Recombination between snowhoe hare and La Crosse bunyaviruses. Gentsch, J.R., Robeson, G., Bishop, D.H. J. Virol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. The mitogenic effects of the B beta chain of fibrinogen are mediated through cell surface calreticulin. Gray, A.J., Park, P.W., Broekelmann, T.J., Laurent, G.J., Reeves, J.T., Stenmark, K.R., Mecham, R.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Ultrafast glycerophospholipid-selective transbilayer motion mediated by a protein in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Buton, X., Morrot, G., Fellmann, P., Seigneuret, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. The origin of serotoninergic afferents to the cat's cerebellar nuclei. Kitzman, P.H., Bishop, G.A. J. Comp. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Role of Emx2 in the development of the reciprocal connectivity between cortex and thalamus. López-Bendito, G., Chan, C.H., Mallamaci, A., Parnavelas, J., Molnár, Z. J. Comp. Neurol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Different origins of cochlear efferents in some bat species, rats, and guinea pigs. Aschoff, A., Ostwald, J. J. Comp. Neurol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  31. Allele frequency shifts in response to climate change and physiological consequences of allozyme variation in a montane insect. Rank, N.E., Dahlhoff, E.P. Evolution (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. A comparison of oral prostaglandin E2 and intravenous oxytocin for induction of labor in normal and high-risk pregnancies. Nelson, G.H., Bryans, C.I. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  33. Intravaginal misoprostol as a cervical ripening agent. Fletcher, H.M., Mitchell, S., Simeon, D., Frederick, J., Brown, D. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  34. Management of pregnancies beyond forty-one weeks' gestation with an unfavorable cervix. Magann, E.F., Chauhan, S.P., Nevils, B.G., McNamara, M.F., Kinsella, M.J., Morrison, J.C. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. The effects of mifepristone on cervical ripening and labor induction in primigravidae. Elliott, C.L., Brennand, J.E., Calder, A.A. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Prothymosin alpha expression occurs during G1 in proliferating B or T lymphocytes. Szabo, P., Ehleiter, D., Whittington, E., Weksler, M.E. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. Prostaglandin dehydrogenase and the initiation of labor. Challis, J.R., Patel, F.A., Pomini, F. Journal of perinatal medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Effect of N-acetyl cysteine on oxidative DNA damage and the frequency of DNA deletions in atm-deficient mice. Reliene, R., Fischer, E., Schiestl, R.H. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. The porcine SRY promoter is transactivated within a male genital ridge environment. Daneau, I., Pilon, N., Boyer, A., Behdjani, R., Overbeek, P.A., Viger, R., Lussier, J., Silversides, D.W. Genesis (2002) [Pubmed]
  40. Maternal plasma corticotrophin-releasing factor and urocortin levels in post-term pregnancies. Torricelli, M., Ignacchiti, E., Giovannelli, A., Merola, A., Scarpetti, E., Calonaci, G., Picciolini, E., Florio, P., Reis, F.M., Linton, E.A., Petraglia, F. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  41. Monoclonal antibody with hemagglutination, immobilization, and neutralization activities defines an immunodominant, 47,000 mol wt, surface-exposed immunogen of Treponema pallidum (Nichols). Jones, S.A., Marchitto, K.S., Miller, J.N., Norgard, M.V. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  42. The osmotic integrity of the yeast cell requires a functional PKC1 gene product. Paravicini, G., Cooper, M., Friedli, L., Smith, D.J., Carpentier, J.L., Klig, L.S., Payton, M.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  43. Misoprostol is more efficacious for labor induction than prostaglandin E2, but is it associated with more risk? Kolderup, L., McLean, L., Grullon, K., Safford, K., Kilpatrick, S.J. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  44. Cervical ripening by breast stimulation. Salmon, Y.M., Kee, W.H., Tan, S.L., Jen, S.W. Obstetrics and gynecology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  45. Comparison of the Bishop score, ultrasonographically measured cervical length, and fetal fibronectin assay in predicting time until delivery and type of delivery at term. Rozenberg, P., Goffinet, F., Hessabi, M. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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