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Chemical Compound Review

CYANOGEN BROMIDE     carbononitridic bromide

Synonyms: Campilit, Bromocyan, Bromocyane, Bromocyanide, Cyanobromane, ...
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Disease relevance of CYANOGEN BROMIDE


Psychiatry related information on CYANOGEN BROMIDE

  • The rabbit anti-2-60 Id antibody reacted not only with 2-60 mAb but also with 2-56 and 3-11 mAbs which were reactive with the epitopes related to the 2-60 epitope on CB10 [6].

High impact information on CYANOGEN BROMIDE

  • Only fibroblasts supertransfected with the invariant chain gene were able to present native antigen, even at very low antigen concentration, whereas both fibroblast types could present cyanogen bromide-fragmented C5 or the virus peptide [7].
  • Using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of intact collagen chains and two-dimensional cyanogen bromide peptide mapping, we demonstrated a complete return to the differentiated collagen phenotype [8].
  • The smaller polypeptide, denoted P3-9 (12,000 daltons), has been mapped by Edman degradation and by fragmentation with cyanogen bromide and determined to be the N-terminal cleavage product of polypeptide P3-1b, a precursor to the RNa polymerase [9].
  • Both collagens resemble previously characterized type IV basement-membrane collagens with respect to their amino acid composition, cyanogen bromide peptides, chain size, immunological reactivity and tissue localization [10].
  • Amino acid analysis and cyanogen bromide peptide profiles of pepsin-treated TSD4 collagen demonstrated significant differences from those of other collagens (II, III, IV) of the type alpha1(X)3, although similar to that of the alpha1 chain of type I collagen, [alpha1(1)]2alpha2 [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of CYANOGEN BROMIDE


Biological context of CYANOGEN BROMIDE

  • Amino acid and cyanogen bromide fragmentation studies showed a close similarity between hepatic and serum (PiMM) antitrypsin in contrast to the carbohydrate analysis, which revealed markedly deficient glycosylation of hepatic antitrypsin [17].
  • (This crossreactive antibody did not, however, bind to any of four other serotypes examined.) Regional conservation of structure between VMP7 and VMP21 was also shown by amino acid sequence analysis of the N-termini of the five CNBr fragments [18].
  • In addition, animals tolerized with either CII or CB11 had a decreased antibody response not only to CII, but also to each of the other CB peptides tested [19].
  • Antibodies to gonococcal pili, cyanogen bromide cleavage fragments of gonococcal pilin, or synthetic peptide analogues corresponding to regions of the gonococcal pilin sequence, were used to detect common meningococcal and gonococcal antigenic determinants that might indicate the existence of a conserved sequence beyond residue 29 [20].
  • Assays of LMM cyanogen bromide fragments also suggested a strong binding site near the COOH terminus [21].

Anatomical context of CYANOGEN BROMIDE

  • Lewis anti-DA T-cell receptors were purified from normal Lewis serum by the use of anti-idiotypic immunosorbent and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel, and were coupled to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B [22].
  • The receptors that bind monomeric IgG2a, sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) covalently bound with IgG2a or rabbit IgG using glutaraldehyde, and Sephadex beads coupled with IgG2a or rabbit IgG using cyanogen bromide activitation, is sensitive to trypsinization [23].
  • In addition, smaller peptides obtained either by digesting native collagen with bacterial collagenase or by degrading purified alpha-chains with cyanogen bromide or pepsin were also chemotactic for monocytes [24].
  • The location of the epitope recognized by helper cells was examined with two fragments of VL-315, obtained by cleavage with cyanogen bromide at Met 87 [25].
  • Four types of clones were isolated, distinguished by their patterns of recognition of Mb cyanogen bromide (CNBr) fragments and antigen presenting cell (APC) requirements [26].

Associations of CYANOGEN BROMIDE with other chemical compounds

  • Taken together, acrylamide gel electrophoresis, amino acid composition, electron microscopy, and cyanogen bromide peptide analysis indicate that this material represents a new molecular species of collagen not previously characterized, probably related to [alpha1(I)]3 [11].
  • Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic and analysis and cyanogen bromide digestion studies revealed that the activity resided in a methionine-containing protein having a pI of 7.5 and a molecular weight of approximately equal to 15,000 daltons [27].
  • A major cell binding site was found in the trimeric cyanogen bromide-derived fragment CB3, located 100 nm away from the NH2 terminus of the molecule, in which the triple-helical conformation is stabilized by interchain disulfide bridges [28].
  • Heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan, isolated from the cell surface of nonadhering murine myeloma cells (P3X63-Ag8653), does not bind to plasma fibronectin, but binds partially to collagen type I, as assayed by affinity chromatography with proteins immobilized on cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B [29].
  • In order to understand the mechanism of these changes, a cyanogen bromide (CNBr) fragment that contained 90% of the sialic acid of N-CAM was isolated and characterized according to the number of carbohydrate attachment sites and reactivity with specific monoclonal antibodies [30].

Gene context of CYANOGEN BROMIDE

  • However, the COOH-terminal cyanogen bromide fragment corresponding to residues 60--78 increased hydrolysis 4-fold compared to an average of 9-fold activation for the same concentration of apoC-II [31].
  • Cyanogen bromide fragments of apoC-II corresponding to residues 1--9 and 10--59 had little ability to activate LPL [31].
  • This was confirmed by the avid binding of rCBD123 to the alpha 1(I) collagen cyanogen bromide fragment CB2 from the NH2-terminal telopeptide. rCBD123 also bound alpha 1(I)-CB7, which encompasses the fibronectin-binding site, and to alpha 1(I)-CB8, a fragment not bound by fibronectin [32].
  • The resulting product, called anhydrourokinase, was found to reversibly bind the PAI-1 when immobilized on cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B beads [33].
  • Site of binding of IgG2b and IgG2a by mouse macrophage Fc receptors by using cyanogen bromide fragments [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CYANOGEN BROMIDE


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  5. Antiviral effect on MS-2 coliphage obtained with a synthetic antigen. Langbeheim, H., Arnon, R., Sela, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
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  7. A role of Ia-associated invariant chains in antigen processing and presentation. Stockinger, B., Pessara, U., Lin, R.H., Habicht, J., Grez, M., Koch, N. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Dedifferentiated chondrocytes reexpress the differentiated collagen phenotype when cultured in agarose gels. Benya, P.D., Shaffer, J.D. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. A membrane-associated precursor to poliovirus VPg identified by immunoprecipitation with antibodies directed against a synthetic heptapeptide. Semler, B.L., Anderson, C.W., Hanecak, R., Dorner, L.F., Wimmer, E. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  10. Nonhelical, fibronectin-binding basement-membrane collagen from endodermal cell culture. Engvall, E., Bell, M.L., Carlsson, R.N., Miller, E.J., Ruoslahti, E. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Procollagen and collagen produced by a teratocarcinoma-derived cell line, TSD4: evidence for a new molecular form of collagen. Little, C.D., Church, R.L., Miller, R.A., Ruddle, F.H. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. The amino acid sequence of Clostridium pasteurianum iron protein, a component of nitrogenase. III. The NH2-terminal and COOH-terminal sequences, tryptic peptides of large cyanogen bromide peptides, and the complete sequence. Tanaka, M., Haniu, M., Yasunobu, K.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification of the vaccinia virus mRNA guanyltransferase active site lysine. Niles, E.G., Christen, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. The amino acid sequence of the D-galactose-binding protein from Escherichia coli B/r. Mahoney, W.C., Hogg, R.W., Hermodson, M.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  15. Histidine decarboxylase of Lactobacillus 30a. Sequences of the cyanogen bromide peptides from the alpha chain. Huynh, Q.K., Vaaler, G.L., Recsei, P.A., Snell, E.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Dihydrofolate reductase from amethopterin-resistant Lactobacillus casei. Sequences of the cyanogen bromide peptides and complete sequences of the enzyme. Freisheim, J.H., Bitar, K.G., Reddy, A.V., Blankenship, D.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Characterization of alpha1-antitrypsin in the inclusion bodies from the liver in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. Jeppsson, J.O., Larsson, C., Eriksson, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. Variable major proteins of Borrelia hermsii. Epitope mapping and partial sequence analysis of CNBr peptides. Barstad, P.A., Coligan, J.E., Raum, M.G., Barbour, A.G. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Identification of an immunosuppressive epitope of type II collagen that confers protection against collagen-induced arthritis. Myers, L.K., Stuart, J.M., Seyer, J.M., Kang, A.H. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Pili of Neisseria meningitidis. Analysis of structure and investigation of structural and antigenic relationships to gonococcal pili. Stephens, D.S., Whitney, A.M., Rothbard, J., Schoolnik, G.K. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Studies of the interaction between titin and myosin. Houmeida, A., Holt, J., Tskhovrebova, L., Trinick, J. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Binding of purified, soluble major histocompatibility complex polypeptide chains onto isolated T-cell receptors. I. Reactivity against allo- and self-determinants. Binz, H., Frischknecht, H., Mercolli, C., Dunst, S., Wigzell, H. J. Exp. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  23. The presence of two Fc receptors on mouse macrophages: evidence from a variant cell line and differential trypsin sensitivity. Unkeless, J.C. J. Exp. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Collagen-and collagen peptide-induced chemotaxis of human blood monocytes. Postlethwaite, A.E., Kang, A.H. J. Exp. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. T helper cells recognize an idiotope located on peptide 88-114/117 of the light chain variable domain of an isologous myeloma protein (315). Jørgensen, T., Bogen, B., Hannestad, K. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. T cell clones reactive with sperm whale myoglobin. Isolation of clones with specificity for individual determinants on myoglobin. Infante, A.J., Atassi, M.Z., Fathman, C.G. J. Exp. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Lysis of oncornaviruses by human serum. Isolation of the viral complement (C1) receptor and identification as p15E. Bartholomew, R.M., Esser, A.F., Müller-Eberhard, H.J. J. Exp. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Characterization of a type IV collagen major cell binding site with affinity to the alpha 1 beta 1 and the alpha 2 beta 1 integrins. Vandenberg, P., Kern, A., Ries, A., Luckenbill-Edds, L., Mann, K., Kühn, K. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Correlation between cell substrate attachment in vitro and cell surface heparan sulfate affinity for fibronectin and collagen. Stamatoglou, S.C., Keller, J.M. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  30. Mapping of three carbohydrate attachment sites in embryonic and adult forms of the neural cell adhesion molecule. Crossin, K.L., Edelman, G.M., Cunningham, B.A. J. Cell Biol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. Activation of lipoprotein lipase by native and synthetic fragments of human plasma apolipoprotein C-II. Kinnunen, P.K., Jackson, R.L., Smith, L.C., Gotto, A.M., Sparrow, J.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  32. Extracellular matrix binding properties of recombinant fibronectin type II-like modules of human 72-kDa gelatinase/type IV collagenase. High affinity binding to native type I collagen but not native type IV collagen. Steffensen, B., Wallon, U.M., Overall, C.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Affinity purification of active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) using immobilized anhydrourokinase. Demonstration of the binding, stabilization, and activation of PAI-1 by vitronectin. Wun, T.C., Palmier, M.O., Siegel, N.R., Smith, C.E. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. Site of binding of IgG2b and IgG2a by mouse macrophage Fc receptors by using cyanogen bromide fragments. Diamond, B., Boccumini, L., Birshtein, B.K. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
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  36. N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide binds specifically to a single glutamyl residue of the proteolipid subunit of the mitochondrial adenosinetriphosphatases from Neurospora crassa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sebald, W., Machleidt, W., Wachter, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  37. Antigenicity and native structure of globular proteins: low frequency of peptide reactive antibodies. Jemmerson, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
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